BACKGROUND: Faecal impaction is frequently observed in children with chronic constipation. The term megarectum is often used to describe this finding. AIM: To evaluate rectal functioning and rectal measures in constipated children with a filled rectum, in order to define the terms faecal impaction, enlarged rectum, and megarectum. METHODS: All children underwent radiological investigation, colonic transit time study, anorectal manometry, and rectal volume and rectal wall compliance measurements. Patients with faecal impaction were compared with controls, who had an empty rectum on digital rectal examination. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients and six controls were included in the study. The mean duration of complaints was 4.2 years and all had faecal incontinence. The colonic transit times in the patients showed a distinct delay in the rectosigmoid segment. Anorectal manometry was not significantly different between patients and controls. The rectal width in patients was 0.68 and in controls 0.52 with an upper limit of 0.61. The pressure-volume curve in patients showed significant less relaxation at a distension of 50 ml. The slope of the curve (corresponding with rectal wall compliance) was comparable for patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that faecal impaction is a filled rectum found on digital rectal examination; an enlarged rectum is defined by a rectopelvic ratio greater than 0.61; and megarectum is defined in those with significant abnormalities found with anorectal manometry, pressure-volume curves, or rectal compliance investigation. A diminished relaxation of the rectum on rectal distension could be the first sign of megarectum in children with chronic constipation. (+info)
(2/45) Fecal impaction following methadone ingestion simulating acute intestinal obstruction,.
A hitherto unreported clinical entity, namely fecal impaction following methadone ingestion simulating acute intestinal obstruction, is described. Five cases admitted to the Surgical Service of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City are discussed. The nature and pathogenesis of the obstruction are analyzed and a suggested method of managing these cases is presented. It is emphasized that with expansion and increasing acceptance of Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs, the number of such cases will increase. It is thus important that physicians become aware of the existence of this syndrome since involvement in methadone maintenance may be a life-long commitment for persons involved, thus increasing the incidence of the complication. It is also imperative to avoid unnecessary, and possibly harmful surgical intervention in such cases. (+info)
(3/45) Perirectal abscess, colic, and dyschezia in a horse.
A quarter horse gelding with intermittent colic was diagnosed with a perirectal abscess and dyschezia. Rectal ultrasonography identified a multiloculated, fluid-filled mass. A perirectal abscess was diagnosed when the mass ruptured and drained into the rectum. The abscess was treated successfully with warm soapy water enemas and trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. (+info)
(4/45) Cecal rupture by Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in a thoroughbred horse in Seoul Race Park, South Korea.
A 7-year-old Thoroughbred horse was admitted to the Equine Hospital, Korea Racing Association with signs of colic. Based on the size of impactions, the clinical signs, the results of abdominal paracentesis and medical treatment, the prognosis was poor. The horse died 3 hours later following hopeless discharge. At necropsy, the caecum and large colon were fully filled with fecal contents and there was a rupture (10 cm in dia) in the latero- ventral caecum. The mucosa of the ileo-caecal and caeco- colic valves appeared to the hyperemic, edematous and ulcerous. There were many tapeworms in the affected mucosa. Histopathologically, lesions included hyperaemia, a deep necrotic inflammatory lesion and ulcers in the mucosa and submucosa of ileo-caecal and caeco-colic valves. One hundred thirty four faecal samples were obtained from 16 stables and submitted to parasitic examination. A total of 4 genera of eggs were recovered: Stongylus spp (82.1%), Anoplocephala perfoliata (10.5%), Bovicola equi (0.7%) and Parascaris equorum (1.5%). The major findings in this study are the presence of A perfoliata and its suspected association with the colic which led into an eventual caecal rupture. This study indicates the needs for an epidemiological survey of colic that is associated with Anoplocephala. (+info)
(5/45) A case of enterolith small bowel obstruction and jejunal diverticulosis.
We reported a case of 79-year old woman with known large bowel diverticulosis presenting with small bowel obstruction due to stone impaction - found on plain abdominal X-ray. Contrast studies demonstrated small bowel diverticulosis. At laparotomy, the gall bladder was normal with no stones and no abnormal communication with small bowel - excluding the possibility of a gallstone ileus. Analysis of the stone revealed a composition of bile pigments and calcium oxalate. This was a rare case of small bowel obstruction due to enterolith formation - made distinctive by calcification (previously unreported in the proximal small bowel). (+info)
(6/45) Fecal incontinence in elderly patients: common, treatable, yet often undiagnosed.
It is important for primary care physicians to take fecal incontinence seriously and not dismiss it as a normal part of aging. Elderly patients may be reluctant to admit fecal incontinence, so clinicians need to ask about it. Two of the most common causes are fecal impaction (especially in nursing home patients) and rectosphincter dysfunction in people with diabetes. (+info)
(7/45) Use of erythromycin for the treatment of severe chronic constipation in children.
The efficacy of erythromycin was assessed in the treatment of 14 children aged 4 to 13 years with refractory chronic constipation, and presenting megarectum and fecal impaction. A double-blind, placebo- controlled, crossover study was conducted at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital. The patients were randomized to receive placebo for 4 weeks followed by erythromycin estolate, 20 mg kg-1 day-1, divided into four oral doses for another 4 weeks, or vice versa. Patient outcome was assessed according to a clinical score from 12 (most severe clinical condition) to 0 (complete recovery). At enrollment in the study and on the occasion of follow-up medical visits at two-week intervals, patient score and laxative requirements were recorded. During the first 30 days, the mean SD clinical score for the erythromycin group (N = 6) decreased from 8.2+/-2.3 to 2.2+/-1.0 while the score for the placebo group (N = 8) decreased from 7.8+/-2.1 to 2.9+/-2.8. During the second crossover phase, the score for patients on erythromycin ranged from 2.9+/-2.8 to 2.4+/-2.1 and the score for the patients on placebo worsened from 2.2+/-1.0 to 4.3+/-2.3. There was a significant improvement in score when patients were on erythromycin (P < 0.01). Mean laxative requirement was lower when patients ingested erythromycin (P < 0.05). No erythromycin-related side effects occurred. Erythromycin was useful in this group of severely constipated children. A larger trial is needed to fully ascertain the prokinetic efficacy of this drug as an adjunct in the treatment of severe constipation in children. (+info)
(8/45) Gastrointestinal impaction by Parascaris equorum in a Thoroughbred foal in Jeju, Korea.
A weanling Thoroughbred foal was admitted to Equine Hospital, Korea Racing Association with signs of colic. On admission the foal was sweating profusely, appeared anxious and exhibiting signs suggestive of abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed: tachycardia (90 beats/min), tachypnea (50 breaths/min) and congested and slightly cyanotic mucous membranes. No intestinal sounds were auscultated in all 4 abdominal quadrants. Rectal palpation identified concurrent cecum and large colon impactions. Treatment consisted of intravenous administration of a balanced electrolyte solution, nasogastric siphonage and administration of analgesics. Nasogastric reflux contained ascarids. This treatment failed to alleviate the signs of colic. The foal died 3 hours later following discharge because the owner didn't want laparatomy because of economic constraints. Prior to admission this foal had not received any prophylactic anthelmintic treatment. In necropsy, there were masses of ascarids accumulation in the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The outcome of this report is to describe the first diagnosed case of gastrointestinal impaction by P. equorum in a Thoroughbred foal in South Korea and indicates the importance of regular anthelmintic treatment. (+info)