The injuries sustained by 969 drivers and front-seat passengers in road-traffic accidents were studied. Altogether 196 (20-2%) of the drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts and 773 (79-8%) were not. The injuries among the two groups differed greatly in both severity and distribution. A total of 54 (27-6%) of the seatbelt wearers sustained one or more fractures compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers, and 18 (9-2%) of the seatbelt wearers were severely injured compared with 300 (38-8%) of the non-wearers. Soft-tissue injuries to the face were sustained by only 29 (14-8%) of the seatbelt wearers compared with 425 (55%) of the non-wearers. Since wearing seatbelts may become compulsory, the type and pattern of injuries to be expected in wearers should be appreciated. (+info)
(2/169) Injury rates in Shotokan karate.
OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were sustained in 1770 bouts. The overall rate of injury was 0.09 per bout and 0.13 per competitor. 91 (57%) injuries were to the head. The average age of those injured was 22 years, with an average of nine years of experience in karate. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of protective padding does not result in higher injury rates than in most other series of Shotokan karate injuries. Strict refereeing is essential, however, to maintain control and minimise contact. (+info)
(3/169) Risk factors for spread of primary adult onset blepharospasm: a multicentre investigation of the Italian movement disorders study group.
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about factors influencing the spread of blepharospasm to other body parts. An investigation was carried out to deterrmine whether demographic features (sex, age at blepharospasm onset), putative risk, or protective factors for blepharospasm (family history of dystonia or tremor, previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, ocular diseases, and cigarette smoking), age related diseases (diabetes, hypertension), edentulousness, and neck or trunk trauma preceding the onset of blepharospasm could distinguish patients with blepharospasm who had spread of dystonia from those who did not. METHODS: 159 outpatients presenting initially with blepharospasm were selected in 16 Italian Institutions. There were 104 patients with focal blepharospasm (mean duration of disease 5.3 (SD 1.9) years) and 55 patients in whom segmental or multifocal dystonia developed (mainly in the cranial cervical area) 1.5 (1.2) years after the onset of blepharospasm. Information was obtained from a standardised questionnaire administered by medical interviewers. A Cox regression model was used to examine the relation between the investigated variables and spread. RESULTS: Previous head or face trauma with loss of consciousness, age at the onset of blepharospasm, and female sex were independently associated with an increased risk of spread. A significant association was not found between spread of dystonia and previous ocular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, edentulousness, cigarette smoking, and family history of dystonia or tremor. An unsatisfactory study power negatively influenced the validity and accuracy of the negative findings relative to diabetes, neck or trunk trauma, and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study confirm that patients presenting initially with blepharospasm are most likely to experience some spread of dystonia within a few years of the onset of blepharospasm and suggest that head or face trauma with loss of consciousness preceding the onset, age at onset, and female sex may be relevant to spread. The suggested association between edentulousness and cranial cervical dystonia may be apparent because of the confounding effect of both age at onset and head or face trauma with loss of consciousness. The lack of influence of family history of dystonia on spread is consistent with previous findings indicating that the inheritance pattern is the same for focal and segmental blepharospasm. (+info)
(4/169) Epistaxis: study of aetiology, site and side of bleeding.
The present study comprises 300 cases of epistaxis. The analysis of these cases revealed a higher incidence in young males. Unilateral bleeding was seen in almost 60% each of indoor and outdoor cases. Litte's area was the most common site responsible for epistaxis in 28.8% of the indoor and 26.2% of the outdoor patients. Hypertension was the most common systemic cause among indoor patients (62.2%) and sickle cell disorder among the outdoor patients (37.5%). Atrophic rhinitis with myiasis was the local cause of epistaxis in maximum (27%) of the indoor patients and traumatic epistaxis was the commonest cause (33%) among outdoor patients-fingernail trauma in 75.9% of them. Idiopathic epistaxis contributed for 16.5% indoor and 26.1% of outdoor cases. Intractable epistaxis was seen in one case following accidental facial trauma. (+info)
(5/169) Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptive youth league players.
GOALS: To assess the relative injury reduction effect and acceptability of face guards on batter's helmets. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective cohort study among 238 youth league baseball teams in Central and Southern Indiana during the 1997 season. Coaches, parents, and players were asked to respond to pre-season and post-season questionnaires. Approximately one half of the teams were supplied with face guard helmets (intervention); all others used this protection at their discretion (comparison). RESULTS: Parents, players, and coaches on the intervention teams reported a reduction in the incidence of oculofacial injuries compared with comparison team respondents (p=0.04). There was no reported adverse effect of face guard use on player performance. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet face guards should be required for batters to prevent facial injuries in baseball. (+info)
(6/169) Treating traumatic tattoo by micro-incision.
OBJECTIVE: To design a micro-incision operation for treating traumatic tattoo. METHODS: With an 11-gauge blade, a micro-incision was made on each side of the small tattoo spot and the tattoo skin was removed. For a longer tattoo particle, a longer incision was needed. The skin incision was sutured with 6-0 silk. For a complex tattoo, dermabrasion could be used first to remove the superficial one so as to expose the deep one which was removed in the same way as mentioned above. When there was a large number of tattoo particles, many operations were needed. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were treated by this method with good to excellent result. CONCLUSION: Micro-incision for treating traumatic tattoo is an effective method. (+info)
(7/169) Incidence of injury in amateur rugby league sevens.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, site, and nature of injuries sustained in amateur rugby league sevens tournaments. METHODS: A total of 168 players competing in three amateur rugby league sevens tournaments were studied. All injuries sustained during matches were recorded. Information recorded included the name of the injured player and the time, cause, anatomical site, and nature of the injury. RESULTS: The incidence of injury was 283.5 per 1000 playing hours. Some 40% (113.4 per 1000 playing hours) of all injuries sustained were to the lower limb (chi(2) = 5.3, df = 1, p<0.05). Contusions were the most common type of injury (113.4 per 1000 hours, 40%, chi(2) = 9.5, df = 4, p<0.05), with most (198.4 per 1000 hours, 70%, chi(2) = 31.5, df =4, p<0.001) occurring in physical collisions and tackles. An increasing injury incidence was observed over the first (99.2 per 1000 hours), second (198.4 per 1000 hours), third (347.2 per 1000 hours), and fourth (694.4 per 1000 hours) matches played during the tournaments (chi(2) = 9.2, df = 3, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that amateur rugby league sevens tournaments, which require players to compete repeatedly on the same day, may hasten the onset of fatigue and predispose to injury. (+info)
(8/169) Orthodontic facebows: safety issues and current management.
Some patients treated with extra-oral traction provided by simple elasticated materials and a standard facebow have experienced problems with the standard facebow coming out of the buccal tubes at night and the catapult effect of the extra-oral traction. The disengagement of the facebow at night has affected the success of treatment and occasionally injured the patient. This paper draws on material from a variety of papers and lists the known causes and considers the associated safety issues. It also provides some clinical tips and makes several suggestions for the continued use of this very useful form of additional orthodontic anchorage. (+info)