During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures. (+info)
(2/412) Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids.
Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible. (+info)
(3/412) Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol.
Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue. (+info)
(4/412) Altered expression profile of the surface glycopeptidolipids in drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex.
Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex are the most frequently encountered opportunistic bacterial pathogens among patients in the advanced stage of AIDS. Two clinical isolates of the same strain, numbers 397 and 417, were obtained from an AIDS patient with disseminated M. avium complex infection before and after treatment with a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol. To identify the biochemical consequence of drug treatment, the expression and chemical composition of their major cell wall constituents, the arabinogalactan, lipoarabinomannan, and the surface glycopeptidolipids (GPL), were critically examined. Through thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis, it was found that the GPL expression profiles differ significantly in that several apolar GPLs were overexpressed in the clinically resistant 417 isolate at the expense of the serotype 1 polar GPL, which was the single predominant band in the ethambutol-susceptible 397 isolate. Thus, instead of additional rhamnosylation on the 6-deoxytalose (6-dTal) appendage to give the serotype 1-specific disaccharide hapten, the accumulation of this nonextended apolar GPL probably provided more precursor substrate available for further nonsaccharide substitutions including a higher degree of O-methylation to give 3-O-Me-6-dTal and the unusual 4-O-sulfation on 6-dTal. Further data showed that this alteration effectively neutralized ethambutol, which is known to inhibit arabinan synthesis. Thus, in contrast with derived Emb-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are devoid of a surface GPL layer, the lipoarabinomannan from resistant 417 isolate grown in the presence of this drug was not apparently truncated. (+info)
(5/412) Mycobacterium bovis BCG causing vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) following intravesical BCG therapy.
We report a case of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vertebral osteomyelitis in a 79-year-old man 2.5 years after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. The recovered isolate resembled M. tuberculosis biochemically, but resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) rendered that diagnosis suspect. High-pressure liquid chromatographic studies confirmed the diagnosis of M. bovis BCG infection. The patient was originally started on a four-drug antituberculous regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and PZA. When susceptibility studies were reported, the regimen was changed to isoniazid and rifampin for 12 months. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to a skilled nursing facility for 3 months, where he underwent intensive physical therapy. Although extravesical adverse reactions are rare, clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to be aware of the possibility of disseminated infection by M. bovis BCG in the appropriate setting of clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. (+info)
(6/412) Correlation of quantitative bone marrow and blood cultures in AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection.
The relationship between Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection of blood and bone marrow was studied in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients before and during treatment. Quantitative cultures were obtained at baseline from 17 persons with newly detected MAC bacteremia. Serial blood cultures were obtained, and a second bone marrow sample was obtained at 4 or 8 weeks. At baseline, the median MAC load in bone marrow core samples was 3 log10 higher than in blood. Bone marrow MAC loads ranged widely (866-847,315 cfu/g), and no significant correlation was found between MAC load in blood and that in bone marrow core samples. MAC loads in bilateral bone marrow biopsy samples from 7 subjects were highly correlated. MAC loads declined in blood and bone marrow at similar rates during therapy, but blood was sterilized before bone marrow. Length of survival was inversely associated with initial bone marrow core MAC load but not with blood MAC load. Initiation of treatment when tissue MAC load is low may increase the likelihood of favorable clinical outcome. (+info)
(7/412) Five-year assessment of controlled trials of short-course chemotherapy regimens of 6, 9 or 18 months' duration for spinal tuberculosis in patients ambulatory from the start or undergoing radical surgery. Fourteenth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Tuberculosis of the Spine.
The five-year assessment of three randomised trials of short course (6, 9 or 18 months) chemotherapy for tuberculosis of the spine is reported. In Hong Kong patients were randomised to isoniazid plus rifampicin (HR) daily for 6 or 9 months, combined with radical surgical resection with bone grafting and streptomycin for 6 months for all patients. In Madras patients were randomised to chemotherapy with HR for 6 or 9 months, or 6 months HR chemotherapy combined with surgical resection. In Korea all patients were ambulatory and were randomised to different regimens of chemotherapy 6 or 9 months HR, or 9 or 18 months isoniazid plus ethambutol. (EH) or isoniazid plus PAS (PH). In all centres the results of the 6- and 9-month regimens of HR were excellent and similar to the 18-month EH and PH regimens. The 9-month EH/PH regimens were clearly inferior. In Hong Kong excellent results were achieved by the radical resection. The disease was however less extensive than in Madras, where the results after surgery were no better than with ambulatory chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the critical factor in the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Efforts should be concentrated on ensuring that appropriate regimens are given under adequate supervision. (+info)
(8/412) Mefloquine is active in vitro and in vivo against Mycobacterium avium complex.
Despite the development of several agents, new classes of antimicrobials with activity against the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are needed. Based on a broad screening of compounds, we found that mefloquine has MICs of 8 to 16 microg/ml by the BACTEC system and 16 microg/ml by broth microdilution for five MAC strains tested. An expansion of the screening with broth microdilution to 24 macrolide-susceptible strains and 6 macrolide-resistant strains determined that the MIC for all strains was 16 microg/ml. To determine the intracellular activity of mefloquine, U937 macrophage monolayers infected with MAC strain 101, 100, or 109 (serovars 1, 8, and 4) were treated with mefloquine daily, and the number of intracellular bacteria was quantitated after 4 days. Significant growth inhibition against the three MAC strains at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 microg/ml (P < 0.05) was obtained. Due to the encouraging anti-MAC activity, in vivo efficacy in beige mice infected with MAC 101 was evaluated. Animals were treated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily, three times a week, twice a week, or once a week for 4 weeks, and bacteria were quantitated in blood, liver, and spleen. No toxicity was observed with any of the treatment regimens. Mefloquine had borderline bactericidal activity at a dosage of 40 mg/kg daily (100% inhibition compared with a 1-week control), and significant inhibition was obtained at dosages of 40 mg/kg three times a week, as well as 20 mg/kg daily. Mefloquine had no significant effect on bacteremia. A combination of mefloquine and ethambutol showed significantly more activity than did either drug alone in liver, spleen, and blood; the combination was also bactericidal against M. avium. Although safety is a potential concern, mefloquine and related compounds deserve further investigation as anti-MAC therapies. (+info)