(1/173) Lung weight parallels disease severity in experimental coccidioidomycosis.

Evidence provided by histopathological study of lesions is a valuable adjunct for evaluating chemotherapeutic efficacy in experimental animal models, In addition, this should be correlated with a measure of disease severity in the same animal. The latter could be obtained by homogenization of infected organs and quantitative enumeration of viable cells of the etiological agent, but this would preclude histopathological studies in the same animal. Progression of disease in pulmonary infection is associated with replacement of air space by fluid, cells, and cellular debris. Therefore, an increase in lung weight should reflect severity of disease. Results with the murine model of coccidioidomycosis demonstrate that increasing lung weight parallels the increasing census of fungus cells in the lungs of both treated and nontreated infected mice. This was supported with evidence obtained from microscopic studies of lesions indicating that specific chemotherapy limited spread of the infection and inhibited multiplication of the fungus in the lung. Therefore, lung weight can be used as a measure of disease severity in the murine model of coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

(2/173) A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast.

A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection.  (+info)

(3/173) Influence of sex on clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever.

Clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications of typhoid fever were correlated with sex through a retrospective case note review of 102 hospitalized culture-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. Intestinal perforation (P = 0.04), occult blood losses in stools (P = 0.04), and a mild reticulocytosis in the absence of hemolysis (P = 0.02) occurred more frequently in males than in females. A single pretreatment Widal O antibody titer > or = 1:640 was also a statistically significant occurrence in males (P = 0. 006). Female patients were significantly more severely ill (P = 0.0004) on admission and had chest signs consistent with bronchopneumonia (P = 0.04), transverse myelitis (P = 0.04), abnormal liver function test results (P = 0.0003), and abnormal findings in urinalyses (P = 0.02). Typhoid hepatitis (P = 0.04) and glomerulonephritis (P = 0.02) were present significantly more frequently in females. Whether these differences were due to differences in host's immune response to acute infection need to be determined in a prospective study.  (+info)

(4/173) Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia.

The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC-II), CD68, and the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 (also called MRP8 and MRP14, respectively) was assessed in lung tissues from cattle that succumbed to pneumonia. Expression patterns of these markers were related to the types of lung lesion. iNOS expression was only observed in lungs infected with Arcanobacterium pyogenes or Pasteurella haemolytica but not in lungs from cattle with subacute chronic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia due to Escherichia coli infection. High levels of iNOS were expressed by cells (probably leukocytes) surrounding necrotic foci. Occasionally, iNOS was expressed by intraalveolar macrophages in viable parenchyma, by leukocytes within the airways, and by some chondrocytes in the supporting cartilage of bronchi. Cells expressing MHC-II were distributed relatively evenly throughout areas of inflammation and did not display any clear association with necrotic foci. Cell types expressing MHC-II included type II alveolar epithelial cells, spindle-shaped cells of the interstitium, cells in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and leukocytes in lymph and blood vessels but largely excluded iNOS-positive cells. Likewise, CD68-positive cells were rarely positive for iNOS and were not confined to the areas surrounding necrotic tissue. As with MHC-II and CD68, there was little if any coexpression of iNOS and either of the S100 proteins tested. Thus, in cattle with necrotizing bronchopneumonia, iNOS-expressing cells were largely restricted to the cellular zone surrounding necrotic areas.  (+info)

(5/173) Isoimmune haemolysis in pathogenesis of anaemia after cardiac surgery.

A patient who had received multiple transfusions developed antiglobulin-positive haemolytic anaemia due to a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. Many cases of haemolytic anaemia after cardiac surgery could be explained on this basis.  (+info)

(6/173) Familial opsonization defect associated with fatal infantile dermatitis, infections, and histiocytosis.

Members of four generations of a family had a defect of serum opsonization for yeast phagocytosis consistent with dominant inheritance. 2 were healthy, one had chronic osteomyelitis, and the fourth developed a fatal illness in infancy characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, diarrhoea, multiple bacterial infections, and failure to thrive, which resembled the two prevously reported cases with this opsonization defect. At necropsy the infant also had lymphoid depletion, which was possibly secondary, and massive histiocytic infiltration.  (+info)

(7/173) Nitrated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients at risk of ventilator-associated bronchopneumonia.

The study was designed to identify markers of oxidative injury, related to the nitric oxide derived cascade, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from intensive care patients suspected of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty-eight patients developing VAP and/or ARDS (VAP/ARDS group) were compared to 20 ventilated patients without VAP/ARDS (control group). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and elastase, taken as markers of neutrophil activation were measured by enzymatic techniques, and nitrated proteins (NTPs) by an immunological method. The cytotoxicity of the BAL fluid was tested using cultured human epithelial alveolar cells by the release of pre-incorporated 51Cr. Mean NTP concentration and, MPO and elastase activities were different between the VAP/ARDS and control groups (p<0.05 for NTPs; p<0.005 for MPO; p<0.005 for elastase). NTP concentration correlated with MPO and elastase activity and neutrophil number (r=0.93, 0.91 and 0.87, respectively), but not to protein concentration and arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction. The cytotoxicity of BAL correlated with NTP concentration (r=0.92) and MPO activity (r=0.89). It was concluded that the concentrations of nitrated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlated with the oxidant activity of neutrophils and that, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytotoxicity was correlated with the nitrated protein concentration and may be mediated by oxidants.  (+info)

(8/173) Early discharge of infants of low birth weight: a prospective study.

A total of 495 African infants of low birth weight were discharged from Harari Maternity Hospital, Salisbury, between October 1972 and September 1973. Criteria used for discharge were (a) no clinical evidence of disease, (b) satisfactory feeding by mouth (breast or bottle or both), and (c) stable temperature control under normal room conditions. Of the 495 babies 264 fulfilled these criteria when they weighed 1801-1900 g (group 1), 99 when they weighed 1901-2000 g (group 2), and 132 (group 3) when they weighed 2001-2500 g. The overall follow-up rate of those infants living in greater Salisbury was 85-5%, the health visitor playing an important contributory role in their progress, especially those in group 1. More than two clinic visits in the first four to five weeks after discharge were essential for continuing weight gain in groups 1 and 2 but not in group 3. The mean daily weight gain for all babies at the end of four to five weeks was 26 g. Readmission rates for babies in groups 1,2, and 3 were 9-5%, 1%, and 0-8%, respectively, the largest single cause for readmission being bronchopneumonia associated with hypothermia. Altogether 60% of the readmissions occurred during the two winter months (June and July). Hypothermia, associated with low environmental temperatures played a significant part in morbidity and mortality, and twins, particularly in group 1, had a mortality rate three times greater than singletons in the same group. In general, even in underdeveloped communities singleton babies born outside the winter months with reasonable clinic or home visiting facilities can be discharged at a weight of 1800 g or more.  (+info)