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(1/642) Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies. Self psychology and cognitive orientation in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia.

The authors investigated the applicability of self psychological treatment (SPT) and cognitive orientation treatment (COT) to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Thirty-three patients participated in this study. The bulimic patients (n = 25) were randomly assigned either to SPT, COT, or control/nutritional counseling only (C/NC). The anorexic patients (n = 8) were randomly assigned to either SPT or COT. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomatology, attitudes toward food, self structure, and general psychiatric symptoms. After SPT, significant improvement was observed. After COT, slight but nonsignificant improvement was observed. After C/NC, almost no changes could be detected.  (+info)

(2/642) Psychosocial correlates of health compromising behaviors among adolescents.

The objective of the present study was to examine psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. The study population included 123,132 adolescents in sixth, ninth and 12th grades. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Risk-taking disposition was significantly associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. The results suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. The results emphasize the importance of focusing on positive 'risk-taking' experiences for youth in prevention programs; being sensitive to possible sexual abuse experiences among both female and male adolescents in health-care consultations; integrating strategies for improved family connectedness into health promotion efforts; and making school relevant for all adolescents.  (+info)

(3/642) Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones, riboflavin, riboflavin cofactors, and organic acids were assessed in girls with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of malnutrition and low thyroid hormone concentrations on erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin metabolism and their relation with urinary organic acid excretion. DESIGN: Seventeen adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 14.8 +/- 2.2] and 17 age-matched, healthy girls (control subjects; BMI: 20.5 +/- 2.2) took part in the feeding study. Erythrocyte and plasma riboflavin as well as riboflavin cofactors (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) were assessed by HPLC, whereas urinary organic acids were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Anorectic patients who began a feeding program had higher erythrocyte riboflavin (3.5 +/- 2.2 compared with <0.1 nmol/mol hemoglobin; P < 0.001), lower plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide (57.8 +/- 18.5 compared with 78.5 +/- 54.3 nmol/L; P < 0.05), and higher urinary ethylmalonic acid (7.12 +/- 4.39 compared with 1.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.001) and isovalerylglycine (7.65 +/- 4.78 compared with 3.8 +/- 0.9 micromol/mmol creatinine; P < 0.05) concentrations than did control subjects. Triiodothyronine concentrations were low and negatively correlated with plasma riboflavin concentrations (r = -0.69, P < 0.01). Not all patients showed improvements in these biochemical indexes after 30 d of refeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The low triiodothyronine concentrations observed in anorexia nervosa could alter the extent of riboflavin conversion into cofactors, thus leading to high erythrocyte riboflavin concentrations, low plasma flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, and high rates of ethylmalonic acid and isovalerylglycine excretion.  (+info)

(4/642) Anorexia nervosa with severe liver dysfunction and subsequent critical complications.

A twenty-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa (body mass index=11) suffered from severe liver dysfunction (aspartate aminotransferase 5,000 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase 3,980 IU/l, prothrombin time 32%), hypoglycemia (serum glucose 27 mg/dl), and pancreatic dysfunction (amylase 820 IU/l, lipase 558 IU/l). She fell into a depressive state with irritability, which was not improved by intravenous glucose. Despite treatment with plasmapheresis for the liver dysfunction, she subsequently developed pulmonary edema, acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hemodialysis, mechanical ventilation and drug therapy including prednisolone, prostaglandin E1, and branched-chain amino acid, improved her critical condition. In this case, malnutrition may have been the cause for the liver dysfunction and subsequent complications.  (+info)

(5/642) Altered dopamine activity after recovery from restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

When ill, women with eating disorders have disturbances of mood and behavior and alterations of catecholamine activity. It is not known whether these alterations are cause or consequence of pathological eating behaviors. To avoid confounding effects of pathologic eating behavior, we studied women who were recovered (> 1 year, normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no restricting eating pattern, no bingeing or purging) from anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) compared to healthy control women. Recovered AN women had significantly lower height-adjusted weight than did recovered BN women. CSF HVA (pmol/ml +/- SD), a major metabolite of dopamine, was significantly lower (p < .02) in six restricting-type AN women (131 +/- 49) compared to 19 BN women (216 +/- 73) and at a trend (p < .08) less than 13 bulimic-type AN women (209 +/- 53, p < .06) and 18 control women (202 +/- 57, p < .08). These four groups had similar values for CSF MHPG, a norepinephrine metabolite. Dopamine neuronal function has been associated with motor activity, reward, and novelty seeking. These behaviors are altered in restricting-type AN compared to other eating disorder subtypes. A trait-related disturbance of dopamine metabolism may contribute to a vulnerability to develop this sub-type of eating disorder.  (+info)

(6/642) Serum leptin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa before and after partial refeeding, relationships to serum lipids and biochemical nutritional parameters.

Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipocytes that provide information about the body fat content. It was previously reported that serum leptin levels were decreased in patients with anorexia nervosa in comparison with healthy control subjects. The aim of our study was to compare serum leptin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (n=11, initial mean BMI=15.4 kg/m2) before and after partial recovery with control age-matched subjects (n=11, mean BMI= 20.3 kg/m2) and to study the relationships of leptin levels, serum lipids and biochemical nutritional parameters. We found that serum leptin concentrations in patients with anorexia nervosa were significantly reduced in comparison with control subjects (3.61 vs 9.37 ng.ml(-1), p<0.01). Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and albumin in patients with anorexia nervosa either before or after partial recovery did not differ from the control group. After partial recovery, a significant increase in serum leptin was observed (4.83 vs 3.61 ng.ml(-1), p<0.05), but the values still remained significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.01) Leptin levels correlated positively with the body mass index in the control group and anorexia nervosa group before recovery. The correlation with BMI in the anorexia nervosa group after refeeding was not significant. No significant correlation was found between leptin concentrations and serum lipids, total protein, albumin and prealbumin, respectively. Serum leptin thus represents a sensitive parameter that reflects the nutritional status in patients with anorexia nervosa suitable for long-term follow up during refeeding therapy.  (+info)

(7/642) Longitudinal changes of circadian leptin, insulin and cortisol plasma levels and their correlation during refeeding in patients with anorexia nervosa.

OBJECTIVE: To study the longitudinal changes in plasma levels of leptin, insulin and cortisol during the transition from the state of starvation to the state of refeeding focussing on diurnal secretion characteristics and their temporal relationships. DESIGN: Leptin, insulin and cortisol were measured every 2h for 24h during acute starvation (T1). Sampling was repeated after reaching half the target-body mass index (BMI) (T2) and again at target-BMI (17. 5kg/m(2); T3). The temporal relationships between the diurnal secretion patterns were assessed by cross-correlation analysis. RESULTS: Although BMIs at T1 were uniformly low, leptin levels varied widely within a range clearly below normal levels (0.03-1. 7microg/l). With increasing body fat during the course of refeeding, mean leptin levels increased from 0.64microg/l (range: 0.27-1. 73microg/l) (T1) to 1.61microg/l (range: 0.36-4.2microg/l) (T2) and to 3.67microg/l (range: 0.7-9.8microg/l) (T3). Circadian leptin secretion patterns showed maximal values uniformly around 0200h and minimal values around 0800h at all stages of the study. At all three weight levels, plasma leptin levels were highest between midnight and the early morning hours and lowest around the late morning hours. Refeeding neither profoundly changed secretion patterns of leptin nor did it change the positive, time-delayed relationship between leptin and insulin with increments in insulin secretion preceding those of leptin by 6h. A temporal relationship between leptin and cortisol could not be demonstrated in the state of semistarvation but emerged after a substantial weight gain; at that time, leptin increases preceded cortisol increases by 8h. CONCLUSIONS: Absolute leptin, insulin and cortisol levels are profoundly changed during starvation in anorectic patients, while refeeding, paralleled by a BMI gain, reverses these changes. During refeeding the relationship between leptin and cortisol changed profoundly, showing no significant correlation in the state of starvation, whereas at T3 after refeeding a strong inverse relationship could be observed. Leptin and insulin did not correlate significantly at any of the three stages studied.  (+info)

(8/642) Parental high concern and adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa. A case-control study to investigate direction of causality.

BACKGROUND: Robust evidence that anorexia nervosa is preceded rather than accompanied by high-concern (overprotective) parenting is limited. AIMS: To look for evidence of parental high concern occurring before any onset of disorder. METHOD: Forty consecutive referrals of adolescent girls with DSM-III-R anorexia nervosa were compared with matched controls using obstetric records and maternal interviews. RESULTS: Index mothers reported higher rates of: near-exclusive child care (P = 0.02), infant sleep difficulties (P = 0.018), severe distress at first regular separation (P = 0.048), high maternal trait anxiety levels (P = 0.008) and later age for first sleeping away from home (P = 0.009). More index families had experienced a severe obstetric loss prior to their daughter's birth (P = 0.066). CONCLUSIONS: This study lends evidence to the clinical contention that high-concern parenting in infancy is associated with the later development of anorexia nervosa. This may derive, in part, from aspects of unresolved grief.  (+info)