(1/707) Pulmonary embolism: one-year follow-up with echocardiography doppler and five-year survival analysis.
BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is dependent on the underlying disease, degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. A precise description of the time course of pulmonary artery pressure (PAsP)/RV function is therefore of importance for the early identification of persistent PH/RV dysfunction in patients treated for acute PE. Other objectives were to identify variables associated with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and to analyze the 5-year survival rate for patients alive 1 month after inclusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography Doppler was performed in 78 patients with acute PE at the time of diagnosis and repeatedly during the next year. A 5-year survival analysis was made. The PAsP decreased exponentially until the beginning of a stable phase, which was =38 days. The recovery of RV function occurred during the same time period. Risk factors for persistent PH/RV dysfunction and the 5-year mortality rate were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. A PAsP of >50 mm Hg at the time of diagnosis of acute PE was associated with persistent PH after 1 year. The 5-year mortality rate was associated with underlying disease. Only patients with persistent PH in the stable phase required pulmonary thromboendarterectomy within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: An echocardiography Doppler investigation performed 6 weeks after diagnosis of acute PE can identify patients with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and may be of value in planning the follow-up and care of these patients. (+info)
(2/707) A patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy accompanied by right ventricular dilation of unknown cause.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease characterized by an unknown cause of hypertrophy in the left or right ventricle. The dilated phase of HCM shows disease conditions resembling dilated cardiomyopathy, such as ventricular dilation, thin ventricular wall, and reduction of the ejection fraction. A patient presented with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy accompanied by right ventricular dilatation of unknown cause. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens showed characteristic myocardial disarray. Therefore, there is the possibility that the patient had right and left ventricular HCM in the process toward the dilated phase, in which dilatation first occurred in the right ventricle. (+info)
(3/707) Interventricular septal shift due to massive pulmonary embolism shown by CT pulmonary angiography: an old sign revisited.
The computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiogram appearances of acute right ventricular dysfunction due to massive pulmonary embolus in a patient are described. Abnormal findings comprised right ventricular dilatation, interventricular septal shift, and compression of the left ventricle. These changes resolved following thrombolysis. Use of CT pulmonary angiography to diagnose pulmonary emboli is increasing. Secondary cardiac effects are established diagnostic features shown by echocardiography. These have not been previously described but are important to recognise as they may carry important prognostic and therapeutic implications. (+info)
(4/707) Hyperuricaemia in patients with right or left heart failure.
Based on the clinical observation that patients with right or left heart failure often present with hyperuricaemia, the relation between serum urate values and haemodynamic variables was studied in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) as well as in patients with advanced ischaemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. The study was a retrospective analysis of 39 patients with PPH and 36 patients with left heart disease, examining serum urate levels in association with haemodynamic variables. Elevated urate concentrations were found in 79% of the PPH patients. There was no association between serum urate levels and mean pulmonary artery pressures, but a significant correlation was found between urate levels and the cardiac index (r=0.48; p=0.0021) and an even stronger correlation between serum urate levels and mean right atrial pressures (r=0.83; p<0.0001). A similar association was found in a subgroup of 21 PPH patients not receiving diuretics. In 36 patients with ischaemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy, hyperuricaemia was present in 78% and was significantly associated with elevated right atrial pressures (r=0.40; p=0.031) and even more so with elevated left atrial pressures (r=0.55; p=0.0005) but not with the cardiac index (r=0.034; p=0.86). The data show that hyperuricaemia in patients with cardiac dysfunction is closely related to elevated right or left atrial filling pressures. (+info)
(5/707) Copulsation balloon for right ventricular assistance: preliminary trials.
BACKGROUND: Options for management of acute right ventricular (RV) failure are limited. This report describes preliminary testing of a temporary RV assist device that acts by direct compression of the RV. The system comprises a pancake-shaped silicone balloon (5 cm diameter) connected to a drive console that delivers a 65-mL pneumatic pulse during cardiac systole. METHODS AND RESULTS: Initial in vivo tests were performed on 6 pigs (weight, 41+/-4 kg). RV wall motion and stroke volume were monitored via transesophageal echocardiography. Acute RV failure was created by graded right coronary ligation, which yielded a 63% reduction in RV stroke volume (39.9+/-8.2 to 14.7+/-1.9 mL; P<0.002). We secured the balloon over the RV free wall by attaching it to the edges of the opened pericardium. The sternum was then reapproximated, and data were collected with the device off and on (every beat). Device placement had no deleterious effect on RV function. Balloon activation returned RV stroke volumes to normal (37.8+/-9.2 mL) and increased mean pulmonary artery pressures from 13+/-2 to 16+/-3 mm Hg (P<0.01). RV compression did not induce or exacerbate tricuspid regurgitation. Mean aortic pressure improved from postinfarction levels but did not return to normal. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the pulmonary circulation can be supported in the short term via cardiac compression and that balloon copulsation techniques for short-term RV failure should be tested in long-term models. (+info)
(6/707) Treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism.
The epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of PE are rapidly advancing. Our array of diagnostic imaging tools has expanded to include echocardiography and spiral chest CT with contrast. We have also gained a keen appreciation for the importance of risk stratification of our patients. The decision to administer thrombolysis or undertake embolectomy may now depend upon the presence of right ventricular dysfunction even if systemic arterial pressure is normal. Finally, the availability of low molecular weight heparins broadens our options for pharmacologic management. (+info)
(7/707) Acute right ventricular restrictive physiology after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: association with myocardial injury and oxidative stress.
BACKGROUND: Acute right ventricular (RV) restrictive physiology after tetralogy of Fallot repair results in low cardiac output and a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, its mechanism remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the first 24 hours after tetralogy of Fallot repair (n=11 patients), serial prospective measurements were performed of cardiac troponin T, indexes of NO production (NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) combined as NOx), and iron metabolism and antioxidants. RV diastolic function was assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Patients who had a long stay in the ICU were characterized by restrictive RV physiology (nonrestrictive group [n=7]: 3.0+/-0.6 days [mean+/-SD]; restrictive group [n=4]: 10.7+/-3.1 days). Troponin T peak concentration and the area under its concentration-time curve (AUC) were higher in the restrictive RV group (peak: restrictive group 17. 0+/-2.8 microg/L, nonrestrictive group 10.4+/-4.6 microg/L, P<0.03; AUC: restrictive group 268.8+/-73.6 microg. h(-1). L(-1), nonrestrictive group 136.2+/-48.3 microg. h(-1). L(-1), P<0.03). Plasma NOx/creatinine concentrations were higher in the restrictive group than the nonrestrictive group at 2 hours after bypass (restrictive group 1.3+/-0.4, nonrestrictive group 0.8+/-0.2; P=0. 04) but were similar by 24 hours. Iron loading peaked 2 to 10 hours after bypass and was more severe in the restrictive group (peak transferrin saturation: restrictive group 83.9+/-13.0%, nonrestrictive group 58.3+/-16.2%, P=0.05; minimum total iron-binding capacity: restrictive group 0.59+/-0.21%, nonrestrictive group 0.76+/-0.06%, P=0.04; minimum iron-binding antioxidant activity to oxyorganic radicals: restrictive group 9. 5+/-22.4%, nonrestrictive group 50.6+/-11.4%, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: After tetralogy of Fallot repair, acute restrictive RV physiology is associated with greater intraoperative myocardial injury and postoperative oxidative stress with severe iron loading of transferrin. (+info)
(8/707) Balloon dilation of right ventricular outflow tract in a dog with tetralogy of Fallot.
Balloon dilation was performed on a dog with tetralogy of Fallot. Immediately following balloon dilation, the peak systolic pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve declined from 97 to 63 mmHg. Doppler echocardiography following balloon dilation revealed increased pulmonary blood flow. Clinical symptoms obviously improved and the dog's improved condition was maintained for 4 months. There were no serious complications in performing the procedure. It was concluded that balloon dilation was a safe and effective treatment for a dog case with tetralogy of Fallot. Long-term follow-up studies will be required to identify the exact indications of balloon dilation for tetralogy of Fallot. (+info)