The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function. (+info)
(2/3530) Carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation regulates the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII.
Protein kinase C is processed by three phosphorylation events before it is competent to respond to second messengers. Specifically, the enzyme is first phosphorylated at the activation loop by another kinase, followed by two ordered autophosphorylations at the carboxyl terminus (Keranen, L. M., Dutil, E. M., and Newton, A. C. (1995) Curr. Biol. 5, 1394-1403). This study examines the role of negative charge at the first conserved carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation position, Thr-641, in regulating the function and subcellular localization of protein kinase C betaII. Mutation of this residue to Ala results in compensating phosphorylations at adjacent sites, so that a triple Ala mutant was required to address the function of phosphate at Thr-641. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses of phosphorylation site mutants reveal that negative charge at this position is required for the following: 1) to process catalytically competent protein kinase C; 2) to allow autophosphorylation of Ser-660; 3) for cytosolic localization of protein kinase C; and 4) to permit phorbol ester-dependent membrane translocation. Thus, phosphorylation of Thr-641 in protein kinase C betaII is essential for both the catalytic function and correct subcellular localization of protein kinase C. The conservation of this residue in every protein kinase C isozyme, as well as other members of the kinase superfamily such as protein kinase A, suggests that carboxyl-terminal phosphorylation serves as a key molecular switch for defining kinase function. (+info)
(3/3530) Is human thioredoxin monomeric or dimeric?
We have examined the molecular weight and rotational correlation time of human thioredoxin by analytical ultracentrifugation and NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Two variants of human thioredoxin were studied, namely human thioredoxin identical in amino acid sequence to the one whose NMR structure we previously determined (C62A, C69A, C73A, M74T) and human thioredoxin (C62A, C69A, C73A, M74) containing the wild-type amino acid methionine at position 74. In both cases, the experimental data indicate that the predominant species is monomeric and we find no evidence for the existence of a well-defined dimeric form as was observed in the recently reported crystal structure (Weichsel et al., 1996) of human thioredoxin and the C73S mutant. (+info)
(4/3530) The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases.
The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis. (+info)
(5/3530) CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding.
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain. (+info)
(6/3530) The role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation and catalytic activity of pepsin A.
Flexible loops, often referred to as flaps, have been shown to play a role in catalytic mechanisms of different enzymes. Flaps at the active site regions have been observed in the crystal structures of aspartic proteinases and their residues implicated in the catalytic processes. This research investigated the role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation of pepsinogen and the catalytic mechanism of pepsin. Three mutants, T77S, T77V and T77G, were constructed. Differences in amino acid polarity and hydrogen bonding potential were shown to have an influence on the activation and catalytic processes. T77S activated at the same rate and had similar catalytic parameters as the wild-type pepsin. The activation rates of T77V and T77G were slower and their catalytic efficiencies lower than the wild-type. The results demonstrated that the threonine 77 polar side chain played a role in a proteolysis. The contribution of the side chain to zymogen activation was associated with the proteolytic cleavage of the prosegment. It was postulated that the hydroxyl group at position 77 provided an essential hydrogen bond that contributed to proper substrate alignment and, indirectly, to a catalytically favorable geometry of the transition state. (+info)
(7/3530) EPR spectroscopy of VO2+-ATP bound to catalytic site 3 of chloroplast F1-ATPase from Chlamydomonas reveals changes in metal ligation resulting from mutations to the phosphate-binding loop threonine (betaT168).
Site-directed mutations were made to the phosphate-binding loop threonine in the beta-subunit of the chloroplast F1-ATPase in Chlamydomonas (betaT168). Rates of photophosphorylation and ATPase-driven proton translocation measured in coupled thylakoids purified from betaT168D, betaT168C, and betaT168L mutants had <10% of the wild type rates, as did rates of Mg2+-ATPase activity of purified chloroplast F1-ATPase (CF1). The EPR spectra of VO2+-ATP bound to Site 3 of CF1 from wild type and mutants showed that EPR species C, formed exclusively upon activation, was altered in CF1 from each mutant in both signal intensity and in 51V hyperfine parameters that depend on the equatorial VO2+ ligands. These data provide the first direct evidence that Site 3 is a catalytic site. No significant differences between wild type and mutants were observed in EPR species B, the predominant form of the latent enzyme. Thus, the phosphate-binding loop threonine is an equatorial metal ligand in the activated conformation but not in the latent conformation of Site 3. The metal-nucleotide conformation that gives rise to species B is consistent with the Mg2+-ADP complex that becomes entrapped in a catalytic site in a manner that regulates enzymatic activity. The lack of catalytic function of CF1 with entrapped Mg2+-ADP may be explained in part by the absence of the phosphate-binding loop threonine as a metal ligand. (+info)
(8/3530) Defining the substrate specificity of cdk4 kinase-cyclin D1 complex.
cdk4 kinase-cyclin D1 complex (cdk4/D1) does not phosphorylate all of the sites within retinoblastoma protein (Rb) equally. Comparison of five phosphorylation sites within the 15 kDa C domain of Rb indicates that Ser795 is the preferred site of phosphorylation by cdk4/D1. A series of experiments has been performed to determine the properties of this site that direct preferential phosphorylation. For cdk4/D1, the preferred amino acid at the third position C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine/threonine is arginine. Substitution of other amino acids, including a conservative change to lysine, has dramatic effects on the rates of phosphorylation. This information has been used to mutate less favorable sites in Rb, converting them to sites that are now preferentially phosphorylated by cdk4/D1. A conserved site at Ser842 in the related pocket protein p107 is also preferentially phosphorylated by cdk4/D1. Although Rb and p107 differ significantly in sequence, the Rb Ser795 site can replace the p107 Ser842 site without affecting the rate of phosphorylation. These results suggest that although a determinant of specificity resides in the sequences surrounding the phosphorylated site, the structural context of the site is also a critical parameter of specificity. (+info)