Studies using 86 media for maximum growth of Campylobacter fetus for antigen production showed that a diphasic medium (solid base with liquid overlay) was most suitable. The solid base was double strength cystine heart agar. The liquid overlay was thioglycollate medium of Brewer (135-C) without agar. This medium yielded maximum growth of C. fetus in six days with good motility, less clumping and less filament formation than all other media tried. (+info)
(2/462) 2-Deoxyglucose selectively inhibits Fc and complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages II. Dissociation of the inhibitory effects of 2-deoxyglucose on phagocytosis and ATP generation.
Macrophages incubated in 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dG)-containing medium showed a marked decrease in cellular ATP content, and were unable to ingest IgG- and complement-coated erythrocytes via the corresponding membrane receptors for these ligands. However, the inhibitory effects of 2-dG on Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis were not a consequence of lowered macrophage ATP levels since addition of glucose or mannose to the culture medium restored the capacity of the macrophages to ingest IgG- and C3-coated particles without increasing ATP levels. These results indicate that Fc- and C3 receptor-mediated phagocytosis (opsonin dependent) differs qualitatively from the ingestion of latex and zymosan particles (opsonin independent); they suggest that the same regulatory molecules govern the responses of phagocytic cells to signals initiated by both the Fc and C3 receptors. The possibility that these molecules are regulated by glycosylation is discussed. (+info)
(3/462) The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo.
The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning. (+info)
(4/462) 5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Synthesis and degradation in resident and inflammatory populations.
Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages display sufficient 5'-nucleotidase activity to hydrolyze 58 nm AMP/min per cell protein. This activity increases approximately 163 nm AMP/min per mg after 72 h in culture. The enzyme is renewed in unstimulated cells with a half-time of 13.9 h. The activity is not reduced by treatment of intact cells with a variety of proteolytic enzymes, including trypsin, pronase, urokinase, and plasmin. Cells obtained from an inflammatory exudate have diminished or absent levels of enzyme activity. Endotoxin-elicited cells display enzyme activitiy of 20.9 nm AMP/min per mg, while thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages have no detectable activity. The reduced level of activity in endotoxin-stimulated cells is due to their elevated rate of enzyme degradation, with a half-time of 6.9 h. Their rate of enzyme synthesis is essentially normal. No evidence for latent enzyme activity could be obtained in thioglycollate-stimulated cells, nor do these cells produce any inhibition of normal cell enzyme activity. Serum deprivation reduces the enzyme activity of resident cells to about 45% of control activity. These conditions do not significantly affect the rate of enzyme synthesis, but again are explainable by an increase in the rate of enzyme degradation. Pinocytic rate is elevated in endotoxin-stimulated cells which show a more rapid rate of enzyme degradation than unstimulated cells do. However, in serum-free conditions, the rate of enzyme degradation is doubled with no change in the pinocytic rate of the cells. (+info)
(5/462) Macrophage plasminogen activator: induction by asbestos is blocked by anti-inflammatory steroids.
Intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibres into mice induces the formation of exudates containing macrophages that produce plasminogen activator. Like-wise, in vitro addition of asbestos to macrophage cultures stimulates plasminogen activator secretion; the synthesis and secretion of lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes are not changed under these conditions. The enhanced secretion of plasminogen activator by macrophages exposed to asbestos is suppressed by low concentrations of anti-inflammatory steroids. (+info)
(6/462) LPS down-regulates the expression of chemokine receptor CCR2 in mice and abolishes macrophage infiltration in acute inflammation.
Interactions between chemokines and their specific receptors are important for leukocyte trafficking. The CC-chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its specific receptor CCR2 are essential in monocytic infiltration and have been associated with several inflammatory diseases. It has been reported that several endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines inhibit CCR2 expression in vitro in human monocytes. We report here that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) down-regulated CCR2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Injection of LPS into mice dramatically reduced the expression of CCR2 on the surface of peripheral blood cells and completely blocked macrophage infiltration into the peritoneal cavity in response to thioglycollate elicitation. In addition, treatment of mice with LPS reduced their efficiency to clear Listeria monocytogenes infection. These results suggest that down-regulation of CCR2 and blockage of monocyte infiltration may contribute to the inhibition of macrophage function in vivo by a low dose of LPS. (+info)
(7/462) Paradoxical preservation of a lipopolysaccharide response in C3H/HeJ macrophages: induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9.
C3H/HeJ mice carry a mutant allele (Lpsd) of a recently identified gene whose normal allele (Lpsn) confers responsiveness to bacterial LPS in C3H/HeN and most other mouse strains. Recently we reported differential display analysis of matched macrophage-derived cell lines from C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice under LPS-free conditions. Of the approximately 12,000 transcripts evaluated, 4 were differentially expressed. One transcript represented secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. In this study, we report another differentially expressed transcript, mouse matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9). Like secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, MMP-9 was expressed constitutively in the Lpsd macrophage cell line and not in the Lpsn cell line. Similarly, two additional macrophage cell lines that respond readily to LPS by producing nitric oxide and TNF expressed no MMP-9 under LPS-free conditions. However, in all four cell lines, LPS induced MMP-9 or augmented its expression. In primary macrophages, concentrations of LPS in the ng/ml range augmented the expression of MMP-9 mRNA. Paradoxically, macrophages from Lpsd mice expressed more MMP-9 transcripts than macrophages from Lpsn mice. In contrast, the induction of TNF in response to LPS was much more pronounced in Lpsn macrophages. The present findings with MMP-9 suggest that homozygosity at Lpsd does not so much prevent a response to LPS as dysregulate it, resulting in the suppression of some LPS signaling pathways and the preservation of others. (+info)
(8/462) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon is critical for effective neutrophil-mediated response to inflammatory challenge.
Targeted mutation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) epsilon in mice results in early death, primarily due to spontaneous infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Functional analysis of C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils, in an in vivo model of peritoneal inflammation, shows multiple defects. Reduction of phagocytotic killing by C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils is a result of decreased uptake of opsonized bacteria as well as little to no expression of secondary granule proteins. Abnormalities in neutrophil migration detected in a chemical peritonitis model are likely secondary to abnormal CD11b integrin and L-selectin expression on C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Alterations in neutrophil cytokine expression in response to inflammation show decreased levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression by C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Additionally, TNF-alpha expression is increased in nonactivated, circulating C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils. Overall, C/EBPepsilon-deficient neutrophils are severely functionally impaired, evoking an abnormal microenvironment, which may contribute to the loss of normal responses to inflammatory stimuli. Similarities between the C/EBPepsilon-deficient mouse model and the human disease, specific granule deficiency, will be discussed. (+info)