Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was once considered a rare inherited disorder with severe manifestations. Mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia, however, is common, affecting one in 100 to 1,000 persons in the United States and frequently eluding diagnosis. Both classic and nonclassic forms of the disease are caused by deficiencies in the adrenal enzymes that are used to synthesize glucocorticoids. The net result is increased production from the adrenal gland of cortisol precursors and androgens. Even mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia can result in life-threatening sinus or pulmonary infections, orthostatic syncope, shortened stature and severe acne. Women with mild congenital adrenal hyperplasia often present with hirsutism, oligomenorrhea or infertility. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is diagnosed by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in the serum during an adrenal corticotropic hormone challenge. Diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyerplasia in fetuses that are at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be determined using human leukocyte antigen haplotype or by demonstration of excess cortisol precursors in amniotic fluid. Treatment includes carefully monitored hormone replacement therapy. Recognition of the problem and timely replacement therapy can reduce morbidity and enhance quality of life in patients that are affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (+info)
(2/179) Paracrine glucocorticoid activity produced by mouse thymic epithelial cells.
Previous data have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the mouse thymic epithelial cells (TEC) express the cytochrome P450 hydroxylases Cyp11A1, Cyp21, and Cyp11B1. These enzymes, in combination with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), convert cholesterol into corticosterone, the major GC in rodents. In addition, when TEC were cocultured with 'reporter cells' containing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a GR-dependent reporter gene, a specific induction of reporter gene activity was observed. Induction of reporter gene activity was blocked when the TEC and reporter cells were incubated in the presence of the Cyp11B1 inhibitor metyrapone or the 3betaHSD inhibitor trilostane, as well as by the GR antagonist RU486. Coculturing of TEC with thymocytes induced apoptosis in the latter, which was partially blocked by the enzyme inhibitors and RU486. We conclude that TEC secrete a GC hormone activity and suggest a paracrine role for this in thymocyte development. (+info)
(3/179) Interaction of CYP11B1 (cytochrome P-45011 beta) with CYP11A1 (cytochrome P-450scc) in COS-1 cells.
The interactions of CYP11B1 (cytochrome P-45011beta), CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450aldo) and CYP11A1 (cytochrome P-450scc) were investigated by cotransfection of their cDNA into COS-1 cells. The effect of CYP11A1 on CYP11B isozymes was examined by studying the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone. It was shown that when human or bovine CYP11B1 and CYP11A1 were cotransfected they competed for the reducing equivalents from the limiting source contained in COS-1 cells; this resulted in a decrease of the CYP11B activities without changes in the product formation patterns. The competition of human CYP11A1 with human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 could be diminished with excess expression of bovine adrenodoxin. However, the coexpression of bovine CYP11B1 and CYP11A1 in the presence of adrenodoxin resulted in a stimulation of 11beta-hydroxylation activity of CYP11B1 and in a decrease of the 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone formation. These results suggest that the interactions of CYP11A1 with CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 do not have an identical regulatory function in human and in bovine adrenal tissue. (+info)
(4/179) Modulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by adrenodoxin mutants with different electron transport efficiencies.
Aldosterone biosynthesis is highly regulated on different levels by hormones, potassium, lipid composition of the membrane and the molecular structure of its gene. Here, the influence of the electron transport efficiency from adrenodoxin (Adx) to CYP11B1 on the activities of bovine CYP11B1 has been investigated using a liposomal reconstitution system with truncated mutants of Adx. It could be clearly demonstrated that Adx mutants Adx 4-114 and Adx 4-108, possessing enhanced electron transfer abilities, produce increases in corticosterone and aldosterone biosynthesis. Based on the Vmax values of corticosterone and aldosterone formation, Adx 4-108 and Adx 4-114 enhance corticosterone synthesis 1.3-fold and aldosterone formation threefold and twofold, respectively. The production of 18-hydroxycorticosterone was changed only slightly in these Adx mutants. The effect of Adx 1-108 on the product patterns of bovine CYP11B1, human CYP11B1 and human CYP11B2 was confirmed in COS-1 cells by cotransfection of CYP11B- and Adx-containing expression vectors. It could be shown that Adx 1-108 enhances the formation of aldosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and by human CYP11B2, and stimulates the production of corticosterone by bovine CYP11B1 and human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 also. (+info)
(5/179) Effect of the adrenal 11-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone on human hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression: induction of cytochrome P-450 3A4.
The drug metyrapone in the presence of glucocorticoid has been shown to induce the expression of rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 mRNA in vivo and in vitro through disruption of endogenous CYP1A1 regulator homeostasis and without either compound's binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Addition of metyrapone to human liver cancer cell cultures, with or without dexamethasone, did not induce CYP1A1 mRNA, in contrast to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand beta-naphthoflavone. Addition of metyrapone to primary cultures of human hepatocytes also failed to induce detectable levels of CYP1A1 mRNA or CYP1A protein in two separate preparations, whereas the treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-rho-dioxin or omeprazole induced detectable levels of CYP1A1 mRNA in one preparation and CYP1A protein in both preparations. Addition of metyrapone to human hepatocyte cultures resulted in the induction of CYP3A4 expression. The pregnane X receptor (PXR), which has recently been shown to mediate the transcriptional induction of CYP3A4 expression in response to rifampicin, was activated by metyrapone in CV-1 cells transiently cotransfected with an expression vector encoding the human PXR and a reporter construct containing the everted repeat sequence that confers CYP3A4 induction responsiveness to inducers within its promoter. Metyrapone activated the human PXR at concentrations that also resulted in the induction of CYP3A4 in human cultured hepatocytes. Metyrapone treatment is therefore unlikely to result in the induction of CYP1A1 but may induce the expression of CYP3A4 in humans. (+info)
(6/179) Construction and characterization of a catalytic fusion protein system: P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin.
Cortisol is an important intermediate for the production of steroidal drugs and can only be synthesized chemically by rather complicated multi-step procedures. The most critical step is the 11beta-hydroxylation of 11-deoxycortisol, which is catalyzed by a mitochondrial enzyme, P-450(11beta). Various fusion constructs of P-450(11beta) with its electron transfer components, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, were produced by cDNA manipulation and were successfully expressed in COS-1 cells from which the hydroxylation activities were assayed. It was demonstrated that the fusion protein required both adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin for its activity and was not able to receive electrons from an external source. The fusion protein with all three components had less activity than P-450(11beta) alone, receiving electrons from coexpressed or internal electron transfer components. The activities of the fusion proteins were determined mainly by the fusion sequence. The fusion protein with a sequence of P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin was more active than that of P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin-adrenodoxin reductase, 1.5- and 3-fold for bovine and human P-450(11beta), respectively. Modification of the linker region by extending the size of the linker with various peptide sequences in the bovine P-450(11beta)-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin fusion protein indicated that the linker did not have significant effect on the P-450 activity. Taken together, the fusion protein obtained here can serve as a model for the investigation of electron transfer in P-450 systems and is of potential importance for biotechnological steroid production. (+info)
(7/179) PET imaging of adrenal cortical tumors with the 11beta-hydroxylase tracer 11C-metomidate.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate PET with the tracer 11C-metomidate as a method to identify adrenal cortical lesions. METHODS: PET with 11C-metomidate was performed in 15 patients with unilateral adrenal mass confirmed by CT. All patients subsequently underwent surgery, except 2 who underwent biopsy only. The lesions were histopathologically examined and diagnosed as adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 6; 3 nonfunctioning), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 2), and nodular hyperplasia (n = 1). The remaining were noncortical lesions, including 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 myelolipoma, 2 adrenal cysts, and 2 metastases. RESULTS: All cortical lesions were easily identified because of exceedingly high uptake of 11C-metomidate, whereas the noncortical lesions showed very low uptake. High uptake was also seen in normal adrenal glands and in the stomach. The uptake was intermediate in the liver and low in other abdominal organs. Images obtained immediately after tracer injection displayed high uptake in the renal cortex and spleen. The tracer uptake in the cortical lesions increased throughout the examination. For quantitative evaluation of tracer binding in individual lesions, a model with the splenic radioactivity concentration assigned to represent nonspecific uptake was applied. Values derived with this method, however, did show the same specificity as the simpler standardized uptake value concept, with similar difference observed for cortical versus noncortical lesions. CONCLUSION: PET with 11C-metomidate has the potential to be an attractive method for the characterization of adrenal masses with the ability to discriminate lesions of adrenal cortical origin from noncortical lesions. (+info)
(8/179) Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450-1B1 and risk of breast cancer.
Cytochrome P450-1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major enzyme catalyzing the formation of genotoxic 4-hydroxyestradiol. This enzyme is also involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines, mammary carcinogens in experimental animals. CYP1B1 is genetically polymorphic, and the variations in the CYP1B1 gene may be related to the risk of breast cancer. We evaluated this hypothesis among 186 breast cancer cases and 200 age-matched controls as part of a large population-based case-control study conducted in urban Shanghai during 1996 to 1998. Genomic DNA from cases and controls was analyzed for genetic polymorphism in codon 432 (Val-->Leu) of the CYP1B1 gene using a PCR-RFLP-based assay. The frequency of the Leu allele was 53% in cases and 46% in controls (P = 0.06). Compared with those with the Val/Val genotype, women with the Leu/Leu genotype had a 2.3-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-4.5] elevated risk of breast cancer after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This positive association was more pronounced among postmenopausal women (Odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.1) than premenopausal women (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.8-4.3). Elevated risks of breast cancer associated with homozygosity for the Leu allele were observed in virtually all subgroups of women defined by major risk factors for breast cancer. The results from this study were consistent with recent findings from in vitro and animal experiments implicating a potentially important role of CYP1B1 in the etiology of human breast cancer. (+info)