The ability of the dopamine-1 (D1)-like receptor to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phospholipase C (PLC), inhibit sodium transport in the renal proximal tubule (RPT), and produce natriuresis is attenuated in several rat models of hypertension. Since the inhibitory effect of D1-like receptors on RPT sodium transport is also reduced in some patients with essential hypertension, we measured D1-like receptor coupling to AC and PLC in cultures of human RPT cells from normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) subjects. Basal cAMP concentrations were the same in NT (n=6) and HT (n=4). However, the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam increased cAMP production to a greater extent in NT (maximum response=67+/-1%) than in HT (maximum response=17+/-5%), with a potency ratio of 105. Dopamine also increased cAMP production to a greater extent in NT (32+/-3%) than in HT (14+/-3%). The fenoldopam-mediated increase in cAMP production was blocked by SCH23390 (a D1-like receptor antagonist) and by antisense D1 oligonucleotides in both HT and NT, indicating action at the D1 receptor. The stimulatory effects of forskolin and parathyroid hormone-related protein of cAMP accumulation were not statistically different in NT and HT, indicating receptor specificity and an intact G-protein/AC pathway. The fenoldopam-stimulated PLC activity was not impaired in HT, and the primary sequence and expression of the D1 receptor were the same in NT and HT. However, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation in the basal state was greater in HT than in NT and was not responsive to fenoldopam stimulation in HT. These studies demonstrate the expression of D1 receptors in human RPT cells in culture. The uncoupling of the D1 receptor in both rats (previously described) and humans (described here) suggests that this mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension; the uncoupling may be due to ligand-independent phosphorylation of the D1 receptor in hypertension. (+info)
(2/247) Down-regulation of PTH/PTHrP receptor in the kidney of patients with renal impairment.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the down-regulation of renal parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein (PTH/PTHrP) receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression is a general phenomenon in patients with different stages of renal disease, besides chronic renal failure. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were divided into the following groups: (1) chronic glomerulonephritis with normal renal function (GNN) (2) chronic glomerulonephritis with moderate renal insufficiency (GNI) (3) severe chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance dialysis (CRF) (4) acute renal failure during oliguric phase (ARF) (5) normal control without renal suffering (NC). Using relatively quantitative reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) method, we investigated PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression in renal specimens obtained through biopsy or operation. The levels of plasma C-terminal PTH, serum phosphorus and calcium were also observed at the same time. RESULTS: Plasma C-terminal PTH levels in GNI, CRF and ARF patients were 1.90, 9.73 and 8.63 times higher than those in NC. However, the difference between GNN and NC was insignificant. CRF and ARF patients also presented obviously elevated serum phosphorus (1.61, 1.86 vs 1.14 mmol/L) and reduced serum calcium (1.82, 1.71 vs 2.26 mmol/L) compared with that in the control. These two parameters for GNN and GNI patients were normal. The levels of PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA (corrected by beta-actin mRNA) in the kidney of GNN, GNI, CRF and ARF patients was markedly decreased by up to 35.7%, 68.5%, 77.9% and 92.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The down-regulation of renal PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA occurs much earlier than the changes of renal function, plasma PTH, serum phosphorus and calcium in the course of human renal disease. (+info)
(3/247) Parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling is necessary for sexual dimorphism during embryonic mammary development.
Male mice lack mammary glands due to the interaction of circulating androgens with local epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in the developing mammary bud. Mammary epithelial cells induce androgen receptor (AR) within the mammary mesenchyme and, in response to androgens, the mesenchyme condenses around the epithelial bud, destroying it. We show that this process involves apoptosis and that, in the absence of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or its receptor, the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR1), it fails due to a lack of mesenchymal AR expression. In addition, the expression of tenascin C, another marker of the mammary mesenchyme, is also dependent on PTHrP. PTHrP expression is initiated on E11 and, within the ventral epidermis, is restricted to the forming mammary epithelial bud. In contrast, PPR1 expression is not limited to the mammary bud, but is found generally within the subepidermal mesenchyme. Finally, transgenic overexpression of PTHrP within the basal epidermis induces AR and tenasin C expression within the ventral dermis, suggesting that ectopic expression of PTHrP can induce the ventral mesenchyme to express mammary mesenchyme markers. We propose that PTHrP expression specifically within the developing epithelial bud acts as a dominant signal participating in cell fate decisions leading to a specialized mammary mesenchyme. (+info)
(4/247) Involvement of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in cell proliferation activity of human uterine leiomyomas.
Uterine leiomyomas develop from uterine smooth muscle cells, which are known to be regulated by estrogen and other growth factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of expression of parathyroid hormone related-peptide (PTHrP) in the growth of uterine leiomyomas treated or untreated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a). Thirty-nine leiomyoma tissues were obtained from 36 patients who had been treated with GnRH-a (n=10) or without GnRH-a (n=29). The intensity of PTHrP immunostaining was categorized into three grades; "negative", "weakly positive", and "positive". Leiomyoma cell growth was estimated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index (LI) with an image analyser. We also investigated the correlation between PTHrP expression and cell proliferation or histopathological findings. In the GnRH-a-untreated group, LI of the PTHrP "positive" group was significantly higher than that of the PTHrP "negative" group, but the intensity of PTHrP immunostaining did not correlate with LI in the GnRH-a-treated group. PTHrP expression did not correlate with histological findings or clinical parameters (age and phase of menstrual cycle) in either the GnRH-a-treated or the -untreated group. In addition, the expression of mRNA for PTHrP and its receptor was detected in leiomyomas by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results indicate that the expression of PTHrP in leiomyomas correlated positively with cell growth in the GnRH-a-untreated group, suggesting that PTHrP may act as a local cell growth modifier in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on uterine leiomyomas. (+info)
(5/247) Ablation of the PTHrP gene or the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene leads to distinct abnormalities in bone development.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) bind to and activate the same PTH/PTHrP receptor. Deletion of either the PTHrP gene or the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene leads to acceleration of differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. To explore further the functional relationships of PTHrP and the PTH/PTHrP receptor, bones of knockout mice were analyzed early in development, and the phenotypes of double-knockout mice were characterized. One early phenotype is shared by both knockouts. Normally, the first chondrocytes to become hypertrophic are located in the centers of long bones; this polarity is greatly diminished in both these knockouts. The PTH/PTHrP receptor-deficient (PTH/PTHrP-R(-/-)) mice exhibited 2 unique phenotypes not shared by the PTHrP(-/-) mice. During intramembranous bone formation in the shafts of long bones, only the PTH/PTHrP-R(-/-) bones exhibit a striking increase in osteoblast number and matrix accumulation. Furthermore, the PTH/PTHrP-R(-/-) mice showed a dramatic decrease in trabecular bone formation in the primary spongiosa and a delay in vascular invasion of the early cartilage model. In the double-homozygous knockout mice, the delay in vascular invasion did not occur. Thus, PTHrP must slow vascular invasion by a mechanism independent of the PTH/PTHrP receptor. (+info)
(6/247) Zebrafish express the common parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) and a novel receptor (PTH3R) that is preferentially activated by mammalian and fugufish parathyroid hormone-related peptide.
To further explore the evolution of receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), we searched for zebrafish (z) homologs of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R). In mammalian genes encoding this receptor, exons M6/7 and M7 are highly conserved and separated by 81-84 intronic nucleotides. Genomic polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers based on these exons led to two distinct DNA fragments comprising portions of genes encoding the zPTH1R and the novel zPTH3R. Sequence comparison of both full-length teleost receptors revealed 69% similarity (61% identity), but less homology with zPTH2R. When compared with hPTH1R, zPTH1R showed 76% and zPTH3R 67% amino acid sequence similarity; similarity with hPTH2R was only 59% for both teleost receptors. When expressed in COS-7 cells, zPTH1R bound [Tyr(34)]hPTH-(1-34)-amide (hPTH), [Tyr(36)]hPTHrP-(1-36)-amide (hPTHrP), and [Ala(29),Glu(30), Ala(34),Glu(35), Tyr(36)]fugufish PTHrP-(1-36)-amide (fuguPTHrP) with a high apparent affinity (IC(50): 1.2-3.5 nM), and was efficiently activated by all three peptides (EC(50): 1.1-1.7 nM). In contrast, zPTH3R showed higher affinity for fuguPTHrP and hPTHrP (IC(50): 2.1-11.1 nM) than for hPTH (IC(50): 118.2-127.0 nM); cAMP accumulation was more efficiently stimulated by fugufish and human PTHrP (EC(50): 0.47 +/- 0.27 and 0.45 +/- 0.16, respectively) than by hPTH (EC(50): 9.95 +/- 1.5 nM). Agonist-stimulated total inositol phosphate accumulation was observed with zPTH1R, but not zPTH3R. (+info)
(7/247) Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene transcription is suppressed by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Identification of a chondrocytic regulatory element.
Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) is critical for the development and patterning of the vertebrate skeleton. Gain-of-function alleles of fgfr2 and fgfr3 have been linked to several dominant skeletal disorders in humans, while null mutations in fgfr3 result in the overgrowth of long bones in a mouse model system. Interestingly, the expression pattern of fgfr3 in growth plate chondrocytes overlaps that of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor, a signaling molecule that also regulates endochondral ossification. The coincident expression of these two receptors suggests that their signaling pathways may also interact. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanism(s) that govern the expression of the fgfr3 gene in chondrocytes, we have identified a cell-specific transcriptional regulatory element (CSRh) by measuring the activity of various promoter fragments in FGFR3-expressing (CFK2) and nonexpressing (RCJ) chondrocyte-like cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activation of PTH/PTHrP receptors, either by stimulation with PTH or through the introduction of activating mutations, represses CSRh-mediated transcriptional activity. Finally, the transcriptional repression of the CSRh element was mimicked by treatment with forskolin, 8-bromo-cAMP, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or by overexpression of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. Together, these data suggest that protein kinase A activity is a critical factor that regulates fgfr3 gene expression in the proliferative or prehypertrophic compartment of the epiphyseal growth plate. Furthermore, these results provide a possible link between PTHrP signaling and fgfr3 gene expression during the process of endochondral ossification. (+info)
(8/247) Receptors for PTH and PTHrP: their biological importance and functional properties.
The type 1 receptor (PTH1R) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed in bone and kidney and mediates in these tissues the PTH-dependent regulation of mineral ion homeostasis. The PTH1R also mediates the paracrine actions of PTHrP, which play a particularly vital role in the process of endochondral bone formation. These important functions, the likely involvement of the PTH1R in certain genetic diseases affecting skeletal development and calcium homeostasis, and the potential utility of PTH in treating osteoporosis have been the driving force behind intense investigations of both the receptor and its peptide ligands. Recent lines of work have led to the identification of constitutively active PTH1Rs in patients with Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, the demonstration of inverse agonism by certain ligand analogs, and the discovery of the PTH-2 receptor subtype that responds to PTH but not PTHrP. As reviewed herein, a detailed exploration of the receptor-ligand interaction process is currently being pursued through the use of site-directed mutagenesis and photoaffinity cross-linking methods; ultimately, such work could enable the development of novel PTH receptor ligands that have therapeutic value in treating diseases such as osteoporosis and certain forms of hypercalcemia. (+info)