(25/825) That's another story: narrative methods and ethical practice.
This paper examines the use of case studies in ethics education. While not dismissing their value for specific purposes, the paper shows the limits of their use. While agreeing that case studies are narratives, although rather thin stories, the paper argues that the claim that case studies could represent reality is difficult to sustain. Instead, the paper suggests a way of using stories in ethics teaching that could be more real for students, while also giving them a way of thinking about their own professional practices. The paper shows how the method can be used to develop a more critical and reflective practice for students in the health care professions. Some immediate problems with the method are discussed. (+info)
(26/825) The changing face of dental education: the impact of PBL.
The past decade has seen increasing demands for reform of dental education that would produce a graduate better equipped to work in the rapidly changing world of the twenty-first century. Among the most notable curriculum changes implemented in dental schools is a move toward Problem-Based Learning (PBL). PBL, in some form, has been a feature of medical education for several decades, but has only recently been introduced into dental schools. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of a PBL pedagogy into dental education, the modalities of PBL being introduced, and the implications of the introduction of PBL into dental schools. Matters related to implementation, faculty development, admissions, and assessment are addressed. Observations derived from a parallel-track dental PBL curriculum at the University of Southern California (USC) are presented and discussed. This program conforms to the Barrows (1998) concept of "authentic PBL" in that the program has no scheduled lectures and maintains a PBL pedagogy for all four years of the curriculum. The USC dental students working in the PBL curriculum have attained a high level of achievement on U.S. National Dental Boards (Part I) examinations, significantly superior to their peers working in a traditional lecture-based curriculum. (+info)
(27/825) Rationalizing the dental curriculum in light of current disease prevalence and patient demand for treatment: form vs. content.
The premise of this paper is that the form and content of dental education do not reinforce each other. What results is suboptimal learning; dissatisfied students; difficulty generating excitement among the brightest to consider careers in dental education; erosion of dentists' self-identity as men and women of science; and doubts over whether dental schools can continue as the primary providers of oral health education. A need for reform exists because dental curricula must be responsive to changes in current and projected disease demographics, to advances in science and technology, and to a changing societal culture affecting patient demand for treatment. Today's dilemma is that dental schools need to continue to graduate competent practitioners to meet present clinical needs while also preparing students for a radically different kind of practice in the future. Possible approaches to resolve this dilemma include: a shift between what constitutes general practice and what constitutes specialty practice; and, the implementation of an asynchronous-distributed model of dental education. Such changes will likely be independently accompanied by changes in the role of universities in society in general that could make feasible many, now-unthinkable, alternative vehicles for providing dental education. (+info)
(28/825) Teaching ethics in dental schools: trends, techniques, and targets.
The importance of promoting ethical behavior in dental students is reflected in the emphasis on formal ethics teaching within the curricula of most dental schools. Over the last three decades, dental educators have addressed the need for ethics training and examined varied teaching approaches. Today, state-of-the-art ethics education has moved from purely didactic instruction to more interactional teaching methods that promote student introspection and group problem-solving. This paper provides an overview of trends in ethics teaching in dental schools and the current teaching approaches advocated in health science schools. In addition, future needs in dental ethics education are explored including the importance of addressing the unique aspects of the dental education environment. (+info)
(29/825) Planning oral rehabilitation: case-based computer assisted learning in clinical dentistry.
The partially edentulous adult offers a unique and problem-rich resource as a basis for a case-based learning scenario in clinical dentistry in the field of planning oral rehabilitation. However, there is little resource material available to help students negotiate the territory between diagnosis and treatment options of discrete conditions and treatment sequencing once decisions have been made. To address the educational void surrounding the teaching and learning of oral rehabilitation strategies, the authors have developed a CD-ROM 'Interactive Learning in Dentistry: Decision making in the oral rehabilitation of the partially edentulous adult'. The disc emphasises the distinction between 'doing' and 'planning to do' in the decision-making process. After using the disc the students should be able to apply a generic framework to formulate a custom oral rehabilitation plan for their own patient. The disc was evaluated by final-year students from the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney. Response to the program was essentially positive and comments from students have impacted on further development. (+info)
(30/825) Educational outcomes and leadership to meet the needs of modern health care.
If professionals are to be equipped better to meet the needs of modern health care systems and the standards of practice required, significant educational change is still required. Educational change requires leadership, and lack of educational leadership may have impeded change in the past. In practical terms standards refer to outcomes, and thus an outcome based approach to clinical education is advocated as the one most likely to provide an appropriate framework for organisational and system change. The provision of explicit statements of learning intent, an educational process enabling acquisition and demonstration of these, and criteria for ensuring their achievement are the key features of such a framework. The derivation of an appropriate outcome set should emphasise what the learners will be able to do following the learning experience, how they will subsequently approach these tasks, and what, as a professional, they will bring to their practice. Once defined, the learning outcomes should determine, in turn, the nature of the learning experience enabling their achievement and the assessment processes to certify that they have been met. Provision of the necessary educational environment requires an understanding of the close interrelationship between learning style, learning theory, and methods whereby active and deep learning may be fostered. If desired change is to prevail, a conducive educational culture which values learning as well as evaluation, review, and enhancement must be engendered. It is the responsibility of all who teach to foster such an environment and culture, for all practitioners involved in health care have a leadership role in education. (+info)
(31/825) Impact of undergraduate medical training on housestaff problem-solving performance: implications for problem-based curricula.
This article reports a study comparing the problem-solving performance of housestaff with undergraduate medical training in either conventional or problem-based schools. After reading two clinical cases, residents were required to write differential diagnoses and pathophysiological explanations. Biomedical and clinical knowledge used and reasoning strategies were identified. The results suggest that housestaff performance is influenced by the nature of instruction. Housestaff trained in a conventional curriculum (CC) focused on patient information, separated biomedical from clinical knowledge, and used data-driven strategies. Housestaff from problem-based learning curricula (PBLC) organized their knowledge around generated inferences, integrated biomedical and clinical knowledge, and used hypothesis-driven strategies. Data-driven reasoning appears to be impeded in PBLC, suggesting that PBLC students have difficulties in acquiring problem schemata. Previous investigations also found this pattern to be true for medical students trained in two different curriculum formats. Although all housestaff generated equal numbers of diagnostic hypotheses during the reasoning process, housestaff from the conventional curriculum generated a greater number of accurate hypotheses than residents in PBLC. These results are discussed in relation to assumptions in health professional curricula about the adequacy of hypothetico-deductive methods of reasoning as teaching mechanisms and the need for clinical and biomedical knowledge integration. (+info)
(32/825) Problem-based learning and the dental school library.
A major curriculum revision involving the utilization of problem-based learning was implemented at Indiana University School of Dentistry in the summer of 1997. Two of the main goals of this new student-centered curriculum were to promote critical thinking skills and to encourage a desire for lifelong learning, both of which were anticipated to increase student use of the library. This study examined circulation at the library for three years immediately prior to, and for three years immediately following, the curricular change. Results show that library circulation has increased significantly since the pedagogical change. This suggests that students in the new curriculum place more emphasis on the library as a learning resource than did their traditional curriculum counterparts. (+info)