(17/825) Involving students in question writing: a unique feedback with fringe benefits.

A contest on question writing was organized during the undergraduate medical physiology teaching program. Students were asked to write and submit multiple-choice questions of the assertion-reasoning type (type E) in physiology. The winners were decided after the questions submitted were graded on a six-point scale (0-5) that considered both thematic novelty and construct correctness. Of the 100 students in the class, 37 participated in the contest, and a total of 912 questions was received. The contest encouraged the students to go through their subjects critically. The questions provided the instructor with insight into the learning habits and misconceptions of the students and provided the grist for animated discussions in tutorial classes. Although several types of errors were deciphered in these questions, with suitable modifications the questions helped the faculty build up a sizable question bank.  (+info)

(18/825) A model circulatory system for use in undergraduate physiology laboratories.

The cardiovascular system is a central topic in physiology classes, yet it is difficult to provide undergraduates with quality laboratory experiences in this area. Thus a model circulatory system was developed to give students hands-on experience with cardiovascular fluid dynamics. This model system can be constructed from readily available materials at a reasonable cost. It has a realistic pressure drop across the different vessels. Using this system, students can investigate the effect that blood volume, vessel compliance, vessel construction, and heart activity have on blood pressure and flow. The system also demonstrates the effect of vessel diameter on resistance and fluid velocity. This model may give students a more concrete, intuitive feel for cardiovascular physiology. Another advantage is that it allows dramatic and easily controlled manipulations with quantitative results. Finally, its simple construction allows students to interchange components, giving them greater flexibility in experimentation.  (+info)

(19/825) Consultation skills of medical students before and after changes in curriculum.

The University of Manchester Medical School has adopted problem-based learning as its main educational method, with a change of emphasis from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial approach. The training of junior medical students in clinical interviewing is intended to reinforce and develop their interpersonal skills. We measured the impact of this new curriculum by assessing two intakes of students covering the period before and after its introduction; a third intake was later added to examine the effect of further curriculum adjustments. 86 students, randomly selected, were videorecorded conducting diagnostic interviews with standardized patients 10 weeks after they had started to learn clinical interviewing. Two instruments were developed--a 23-item communication skills scale and a 13-item information-gathering scale and both showed acceptable inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Communication skills did not differ between years. The total score for information-gathering fell by 13% (95% confidence interval -20 to -6%, P < 0.001) in the first year after introduction of the new educational approach but returned to baseline the following year after further modification of the course. Although the new approach yielded no measurable improvement in the process of communication, assessment 10 weeks after the start of interview training may be too early to permit definitive conclusions. We conclude that it is possible to change to a more patient-centred emphasis in teaching medical interviewing. Some initial loss of information content was rectified by adjustment of the course. Our unfavourable early experience highlights the need to evaluate educational change.  (+info)

(20/825) Exploring the context of biomedical research through a problem-based course for undergraduate students.

Students in an interdisciplinary program explored the manufacture of biomedical knowledge in a problem-based course. Because the class size was two to three times larger than the normal tutorial group, suitable modifications were made (formation of floating groups around defined learning tasks, formal presentations, written reports, and evaluations by students and tutor). A variety of problems and/or cases drawn from research papers, newspapers, biographies, or web pages permitted students to appreciate the complex interactions between ideals, individuals, institutions, and investments that comprise modern biomedical research.  (+info)

(21/825) Pathology in the new medical curriculum: what has replaced the subject courses?

In line with the UK General Medical Council recommendations, the traditional, taught curriculum at Liverpool was replaced from 1996 by a new one using problem-based learning (PBL) as its principal method of information transfer. There is integration of clinical and preclinical studies, coupled with a reduction in the factual knowledge content and the disappearance of identifiable separate subject courses. Learning is now student-centred. This requires a new approach to the acquisition of pathology knowledge. 1. Pathology is included in all relevant PBL case scenarios by pathology representation on module planning and review committees. 2. Special study modules (SSMs) allow students to observe the practice of pathology including surgical and autopsy work, carry out a detailed study and write a dissertation. Career selectives are provided for individual students in the final year. 3. Clinicopathological (CPC) teaching meetings are held, with the discussion of case examples, clinicians and students contributing. 4. Assessments include the input of appropriate pathology content, integrated with other subjects. 5. A pathology teaching website is provided, containing images, notes, self-assessment questions, handouts, timetables and information. Although the 1996 intake have not yet completed their studies, the results of in-course assessments have been encouraging. The response to the pathology SSMs has been very positive, and the level of presentations and dissertations reached is of a high standard. With the disappearance of a separate subject course in pathology, the subject is being learned by other routes, and the students will complete their undergraduate course with a sound basis for proceeding with their further studies.  (+info)

(22/825) A problem-based learning resource in emergency medicine for medical students.

Emergency medicine is a relatively new specialty area within medicine, however medical schools, students and standard setting bodies have recognised that learning emergency medicine is integral to the training of medical students. There are, however, significant problems with the delivery of emergency medicine teaching including low teacher numbers, severely limited teaching time and lack of suitable learning resources. This paper describes the process of development of a learning resource, its format and content and summarises student feedback.  (+info)

(23/825) Undergraduate medical education: comparison of problem-based learning and conventional teaching.

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on studies comparing all aspects of problem-based learning with the conventional mode of teaching. DATA SOURCES: Medline literature search (1980 through 1999) and the references cited in retrieved articles. DATA SELECTION: Studies and meta-analyses that compared the newer problem-based learning curriculum and the conventional lecture-based mode of teaching undergraduate medical students. Areas of comparison included the academic process; programme evaluation; academic achievement; graduates' performance, specialty choices, and practice characteristics; and the attitude of students and teachers towards the programmes. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted independently by multiple authors. DATA SYNTHESIS: Students of the problem-based learning curriculum found learning to be "more stimulating and more humane" and "engaging, difficult, and useful", whereas students of the conventional curriculum found learning to be "non-relevant, passive, and boring". Students who used the problem-based learning method showed better interpersonal skills and psychosocial knowledge, as well as a better attitude towards patients. Students using the conventional model, however, performed better in basic science examinations. Teachers tended to enjoy teaching the newer curriculum. Although the two curricula encourage different ways of learning, there is no convincing evidence of improved learning using the problem-based learning curriculum. CONCLUSION: A combination of both the conventional and newer curricula may provide the most effective training for undergraduate medical students.  (+info)

(24/825) Combination of didactic lecture with problem-based learning sessions in physiology teaching in a developing medical college in Nepal.

Physiology teaching as an essential part of medical education faces tremendous criticism regarding curriculum design, methods of implementation, and application of knowledge in clinical practice. In the traditional method of medical education, physiology is taught in the first year and involves little interdisciplinary interaction. The Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal (affiliated with the Kathmandu Univ.) started in 1994 and adopted an integrated curriculum drawn along the lines of the student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based, elective-oriented, and systematic (SPICES) medical curriculum. Here, physiology is taught for the first 2 yr of the 4.5-yr Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery course. Methodology adopted is as follows. For a particular topic, objectives are clearly defined and priority content areas are identified. An overview is given in a didactic lecture class to the entire batch of 100 students. Tutorial classes are conducted thereafter with smaller groups of students (25/batch) divided further into five subgroups of five students each. In these sessions, a problem is presented to the students as a focus for learning or as an example of what has just been taught. Each problem was accompanied with relevant questions to streamline the students' thought processes. A tutor is present throughout the session not as an instructor but as a facilitator of the learning process. A questionnaire sought students' opinion on the usefulness of this approach, relevance of the combination of problem-based learning (PBL) sessions and didactic lectures in understanding a particular topic and relating clinical conditions to basic mechanisms, and improvement of performance on the university final examination. The majority of the students opined that the combination of didactic lectures and PBL sessions was definitely beneficial regarding all the above-mentioned aspects of learning. The university results corroborated their opinion. Thus it may be considered that a judicious mixture of didactic lectures and PBL sessions is beneficial as a teaching module of physiology in medical schools.  (+info)