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(1/1206) How do peptide synthetases generate structural diversity?

Many low-molecular-weight peptides of microbial origin are synthesized nonribosomally on large multifunctional proteins, termed peptide synthetases. These enzymes contain repeated building blocks in which several defined domains catalyze specific reactions of peptide synthesis. The order of these domains within the enzyme determines the sequence and structure of the peptide product.  (+info)

(2/1206) Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages SP82, SPO1, and phie: a comparison of DNAs and of peptides synthesized during infection.

The genomes of Bacillus subtilis phages phie, SPO1, and SP82 were compared by DNA-DNA hybridization, analysis of DNA fragments produced by digestion with restriction endonucleases, comparison of the arrays of peptides synthesized during infection, and phage neutralization. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that about 78% of the SP82 DNA was homologous with SPO1 DNA, whereas 40% of the phie DNA was homologous to either SPO1 or SP82 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to compare the molecular weights of DNA fragments produced by cleavage of SP82, SPO1, and phie DNAs with the restriction endonucleases Hae III, Sal I, Hpa II, and Hha I. Digestion of the DNAs with Hae III and Sal I produced only a few fragments, whereas digestion with Hpa II and Hha I yielded 29 to 40 fragments, depending on the DNA and the enzyme. Comparing the Hpa II fragments, 51% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities which matched those of SPO1 fragments, 32% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 34% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Comparing the Hha I digestion products, 62% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities matching the SPO1 fragments, 24% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 22% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Analysis of peptides by electrophoresis on one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels showed that approximately 70 phage-specific peptides were synthesized in the first 24 min of each infection. With mobility and the intervals of synthesis as criteria, 66% of the different SP82 peptides matched the SPO1 peptides, 34% of the SP82 peptides matched the phie peptides, and 37% of the SPO1 peptides matched the phie peptides. Phage neutralization assays using antiserum to SP82 yielded K values of 510 for SP82, 240 for SPO1, and 120 for phie.  (+info)

(3/1206) Evidence for an adenovirus type 2-coded early glycoprotein.

We have identified an adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-induced early glycopolypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 20,000 to 21,000 (20/21K), as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 20/21K polypeptide could be labeled in vivo with [(3)H]glucosamine. [(35)S]methionine- and [(3)H]-glucosamine-labeled 20/21K polypeptides bound to concanavalin A-Sepharose columns and were eluted with 0.2 M methyl-alpha-d-mannoside. The pulse-labeled polypeptide appeared as a sharp band with an apparent molecular weight of 21K, but after a chase it converted to multiple bands with an average molecular weight of 20K. This variability in electrophoretic mobility is consistent with glycosylation or deglycosylation of the 20/21K polypeptide. Analysis of the pulse and pulse-chase-labeled forms by using partial proteolysis indicated that the polypeptides were highly related chemically, but not identical. Most of the 20/21K polypeptide is localized in the cytoplasm fraction of infected cells lysed by Nonidet P-40. The 20/21K polypeptide and a 44K polypeptide, labeled with [(35)S]methionine or [(3)H]glucosamine in Ad2-infected human cells, were precipitated by a rat antiserum against an Ad2-transformed rat cell line (T2C4), but not by antisera against three other Ad2-transformed rat cell lines, or by serum from nonimmune rats. The partial proteolysis patterns of the 20/21K and the 44K polypeptides were indistinguishable, indicating that the two polypeptides are highly related, and suggesting that the 44K polypeptide might be a dimer of the 20/21K polypeptide. The 20/21K polypeptide was also induced in Ad2-early infected monkey and hamster cells. These results imply that the 20/21K polypeptide is synthesized in Ad2-infected human, monkey, and hamster cells, and in one but not all Ad2-transformed rat cells. Thus, the 20/21K polypeptide is probably viral coded rather than cell coded and viral induced.  (+info)

(4/1206) Events following the infections of enucleate cells with measles virus.

The development of measles virus (Edmonston) and SSPE measles virus (Horta-Barbosa) has been examined in enucleate BSC 1 cells. New antigen synthesis in measles virus infected enucleate cells has been demonstrated by fluorescent antibody, by the formation of extensive syncytia from enucleate cells alone and by analysis of polypeptide formation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All polypeptides formed in nucleate cells were also present in enucleate cells but the amount synthesized was reduced to around 20% of that in nucleate cells. There was also a significant reduction in the amount of antigen detected by fluorescent antibody in enucleate as compared to nucleate preparations. Examination of RNA synthesis in infected enucleate cells revealed only a marginal increase in acid-insoluble material. Titration of the output of infectious virus from enucleate cells infected at both 37 and 31 degrees C indicated a consistent reduction of almost two log units compared to nucleate cells. That the enucleate cells were capable of replicating input genome at these times was demonstrated by the successful growth of respiratory syncytial virus, both at 37 and 31 degrees C. SSPE measles virus grew to higher yield in nucleate BSC 1 than measles virus but there was again a reduction of more than two log units in enucleate cells. All polypeptides synthesized in SSPE infected nucleate cells were apparent in enucleate cells.  (+info)

(5/1206) On the regulation of protein synthesis in vaccinia virus infected cells.

All eukaryotic mRNA species show a characteristic individual translational efficiency under conditions of restricted polypeptide chain initiation caused by an increase in the osmolarity of the growth medium. In vaccinia virus infected L cells or HeLa cells virus mRNAs can be grouped into classes on the basis of their relative labelling under standard and hypertonic conditions. Under the latter conditions, most of the "early" mRNAs possess very high translational efficiencies, most of the "intermediate" mRNAs show an intermediate efficiency and the most prominent "late" mRNAs show a translational efficiency which is lower than that of other virus mRNAs but still higher than the average cellular mRNA. Late in the infection cycle virus mRNAs with a relative low translational efficiency are preferentially translated under standard growth conditions whereas "early" virus mRNAs which are still present and which show a higher translational resistance to hypertonic conditions are not translated. These results indicate a unique translational control operating late in the growth cycle of vaccinia virus.  (+info)

(6/1206) Inhibition of vaccinia virus growth by the nucleoside analogue 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (virazole, ribavirin).

Virazole or Ribavirin (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) inhibits the growth of vaccinia virus at a concentration ode to a certain extent in the presence of Virazole, the DNA fails to acquire resistance to deoxyribonuclease and virus particles are not formed. Reversibility of the antiviral effect occurs when the drug is washed out from the infected cultures or when guanosine at an equimolar concentration is added.  (+info)

(7/1206) Conformational restraints revealing bioactive beta-bend structures for halpha CGRP8-37 at the CGRP2 receptor of the rat prostatic vas deferens.

1. The main aim of this study was to identify putative beta-bends and the role of the N- and C-terminus in the CGRP receptor antagonist halpha CGRP8-37, which was measured against halpha CGRP inhibition of twitch responses in the rat prostatic vas deferens. 2. With a bend-biasing residue (proline) at position 16 in halpha CGRP8-37 (10(-5) M) an inactive compound was produced, while alanine at the same position retained antagonist activity (apparent pKB 5.6+/-0.1 at 10(-5) M). Proline at position 19 within halpha CGRP8-37 (10(-5) M) was an antagonist (apparent pKB 5.8+/-0.1). 3. Incorporation of a bend-forcing structure (beta-turn dipeptide or BTD) at either positions 19,20 or 33,34 in halpha CGRP8-37 (10(-5) M) antagonized halpha CGRP responses (apparent pKB 6.0+/-0.1 and 6.1+/-0.1, respectively). Replacement by BTD at both positions 19,20 and 33,34 within halpha CGRP8-37 competitively antagonized responses to halpha CGRP (pA2 6.2; Schild plot slope 1.0+/-0.1). 4. Halpha CGRP8-37 analogues (10(-5) M), substituted at the N-terminus by either glycine8, or des-NH2 valine8 or proline8 were all antagonists against halpha CGRP (apparent pKB 6.1+/-0.1, 6.5+/-0.1 and 6.1+/-0.1, respectively), while halpha CGRP8-37 (10(-5) M) substituted in three places by proline8 and glutamic acid10,14 was inactive. 5. Replacement of the C-terminus by alanine amide37 in halpha CGRP8-37 (10(-5) M) failed to antagonize halpha CGRP responses. 6. Peptidase inhibitors did not alter either the agonist potency of halpha CGRP or the antagonist affinities of halpha CGRP8-37 BTD19,20 and 33,34 and halpha CGRP8-37 Gly8 (against halpha CGRP responses). 7. In conclusion, two beta-bends at positions 18-21 and 32-35 are compatible with high affinity by BTD and is the first approach of modelling the bioactive structure of halpha CGRP8-37. Further, the N-terminus of halpha CGRP8-37 is not essential for antagonism, while the C-terminus interacts directly with CGRP receptor binding sites of the rat vas deferens.  (+info)

(8/1206) Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis.

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)