Systemic and pulmonary haemodynamics were studied at rest in the supine and upright position, and during exercise in the sitting position at 75 and 150 Watt, in 13 hypertensive men aged 50-8 +/- 8-7 years before and after 13 months treatment with oral oxprenolol (120 to 160 mg t.i.d.) supplemented by oral hydrallazine (50 to 75 mg t.i.d.) during the last 6 months. Pressures were recorded by means of catheters inserted percutaneously into the pulmonary and brachial artery; cardiac output was determined according to Fick. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of systemic systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures at rest in the supine position and during exercise, and of systolic pressures in the upright posture. Pulmonary systolic and mean pressures increased slightly at rest in the supine position and during exercise, and no changes occurred at rest in the upright position. The left ventricular filling pressure was unchanged at rest both in the supine and upright position; it increased slightly during exercise. The haemodynamic changes by which systemic pressure was reduced were those typical of beta-adrenergic blockade: reduction of cardiac output resulting from a decrease of both heart rate and stroke volume, while the total systemic vascular resistance was unchanged at rest in the supine position but increased in the upright posture and during exercise. The A-V O2 difference increased remarkably. This long-term observation again suggests that the acute haemodynamic effects of an antihypertensive regimen can be modified during long-term application. It did not give evidence of a readjustment of the vascular resistance occurring, at least not in the upright position and during exercise, as has been suggested for long-term beta-adrenergic blockade. (+info)
(2/100) Physico-chemical properties and hydrolysis of oxprenolol octanoyl and benzoyl esters.
The kinetics of hydrolysis of octanoyl ester of oxprenolol (O-OXP) and benzoyl ester of oxprenolol (Benz-OXP) has been investigated in aqueous solution at 310 K over the pH range 0.42-9.5. The decomposition was followed by UV spectral method. At the pH range 0.42 to 9.5, hydrolysis of oxprenolol esters (E-OXP) consists of hydrolysis of BH+ molecules catalyzed by hydrogen ions, spontaneous hydrolysis of BH+ molecules and hydrolysis of BH+ and B molecules catalyzed by hydroxide ions. Various buffer substances were found to exhibit general acid and base catalysis of the degradation. (+info)
(3/100) A study of the relationship between the structure of homologous series of oxprenolol at various pH values.
Stability of series of O-acyl esters of oxprenolol prepared as potential pro-drugs, is investigated over the pH range 0.4-10 at 37 degrees C. Maximum stability of all esters occurred at pH 3-4. The most stable derivative was found to be pivaloyl ester. The relationship between Charton Steric parameters (v) and the catalytic rate constant of hydrolysis is investigated. (+info)
(4/100) Enzymatic hydrolysis of O-acyl esters of oxprenolol.
The stability of each O-acyl derivative was investigated in a solution of hydrochloric acid, artificial gastric juice, phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and in artificial intestinal juice. A study of the relationship between the structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of the homologous series of oxprenolol esters was made. (+info)
(5/100) Differentiation of metabolic adrenoceptors.
1 Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to intravenous infusion of isoprenaline were measured in fasted, anaesthetized cats. 2 Isoprenaline (0.2 mug kg-1 min-1 for 15 min) decreased diastolic blood pressure and increased heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate and plasma free fatty acids. 3 Oxprenolol (0.5 mg/kg) antagonized all cardiovascular and metabolic effects of isoprenaline non-selectively. 4 Para-oxprenolol (0.25 mg/kg) and practolol (4 mg/kg) antagonized the effects of isoprenaline on heart rate and free fatty acids selectively. 5 H 35/25 ((I-(4-methylphenyl)-2-isopropyl aminopropanol) hydrochloride, 3 mg/kg) antagonized the effects of isoprenaline on blood pressure, glucose and lactate selectively. 6 It is concluded that metabolic adrenoceptors are differentiated into subtypes similar to those mediating cardiostimulation and vasodilatation. (+info)
(6/100) Effects of inflammatory disease on plasma oxprenolol concentrations.
When single oral doses of oxprenolol were given to three healthy subjects on three separate occasions under standardised conditions the plasma concentration-time curves for each subject were closely similar. In two of the subjects, however, a mild illness led to a dramatic, temporary increase in the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). This effect of inflammatory disease was confirmed by comparing a group of patients with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of over 20 mm in the first hour with a group whose ESR was below this value. The mean peak plasma concentration and AUC were significantly higher in the group with a raised ESR. This may be related to altered concentrations of one of the acute-phase proteins. Thus it is concluded that plasma oxprenolol concentrations are raised in inflammatory disease, but further work is needed to determine the mechanism of this increase. (+info)
(7/100) Formation of the N-nitroso derivatives of six beta-adrenergic-blocking agents and their genotoxic effects in rat and human hepatocytes.
Six beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, propranolol and sotalol, were found to react with sodium nitrite in HCl solution, yielding the corresponding N-nitrosamines. The genotoxic activity of the six nitrosamines was evaluated in primary cultures of both rat and human hepatocytes; DNA fragmentation was measured by the alkaline elution technique, and DNA repair synthesis by quantitative autoradiography. Positive dose-related responses were produced in cells of both species after 20 h of exposure to the following subtoxic concentrations: NO-propranolol, 0.01-0.1 mM; NO-oxprenolol, 0.03-1 mM; NO-atenolol and NO-metoprolol, 0.1-1 mM; and NO-nadolol and NO-sotalol, 0.3-3 mM. Modest but statistically significant differences between the DNA-damaging potencies for the two species were observed with NO-atenolol and NO-oxprenolol, which were both more active against rat hepatocytes, and with NO-propranolol, which was more active against human hepatocytes. At equal or higher concentrations, the six N-nitrosamines did not produce DNA fragmentation in Chinese hamster lung V79 cells; this indicates that they behave as indirectly acting compounds, which need to be transformed into reactive metabolites in order to exert a genotoxic effect. (+info)
(8/100) Atypical beta-adrenergic receptor in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Pharmacological and molecular relationship with the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor.
Expression of ligand binding properties for an atypical beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) subtype was studied during the adipose differentiation of murine 3T3-F442A cells and compared with that of the human beta 3-AR expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the human beta 3-AR gene (CHO-beta 3 cells) Emorine, L. J., Marullo, S., Briend-Sutren, M. M., Patey, G., Tate, K., Delavier-Klutchko, C., and Strosberg, A. D. (1989) Science 245, 1118-1121). 3T3-F442A adipocytes exhibited high and low affinity binding sites for (-)-4-(3-t-butylamino-2-hydroxypropoxy) [5,7-3H]benzimidazole-2-one ((-)-[3H]CGP-12177) (KD = 1.2 and 38.3 nM) and (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol ([125I]CYP) (KD = 47 and 1,510 pM). The high affinity sites corresponded to the classical beta 1- and beta 2-AR subtypes whereas the KD values of the low affinity sites for the radioligands were similar to those measured in CHO-beta 3 cells (KD = 28 nM and 1,890 pM for (-)-[3H]CGP12177 and [125I]CYP, respectively). These low affinity sites were undetectable in preadipocytes but represented about 90% of total beta-ARs in adipocytes. The atypical beta-AR and the human beta 3-AR add similarly low affinities (Ki = 3-5 microM) for (+/-)-(2-(3-carbamoyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)ethylamino-3)-(4-(1-methyl- 4- trifluormethyl-2-imidazolyl)-phenoxy)-2-propanol methane sulfonate (CGP20712A) or erythro-(+/-)-1-(7-methylindan-4-yloxy)-3-isopropylaminob utan-2-ol (ICI118551), highly selective beta 1- and beta 2-AR antagonists, respectively, in agreement with the poor inhibitory effect of the compounds on (-)-isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Atypical beta-AR and beta 3-AR had an affinity about 10-50 times higher for sodium-4-(2-[2-hydroxy-2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylamino]propyl)phenoxyace tate sesquihydrate (BRL37344) than the beta 1-AR subtype. This correlates with the potent lipolytic effect of BRL37344 in adipocytes. The rank order of potency of agonists in functional and binding studies was BRL37344 greater than IPR less than (-)-norepinephrine greater than (-)-epinephrine both in 3T3 adipocytes and CHO-beta 3 cells. As in CHO-beta 3 cells, the classical beta 1- and beta 2-antagonists CGP12177, oxprenolol, and pindolol were partial agonists in adipocytes. Although undetectable in preadipocytes, a major mRNA species of 2.3 kilobases (kb) and a minor one of 2.8 kb were observed in adipocytes by hybridization to a human beta 3-AR specific probe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info)