BACKGROUND: The cuffed oropharyngeal airway is a modified Guedel-type oral airway with a cuff at its distal end. The objectives of this study were to compare the ability of the cuffed oropharyngeal airway and the laryngeal mask airway to provide positive-pressure ventilation during general anesthesia, and to assess their relative ease of use and ability to reduce total fresh gas flow rates. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized study, a cuffed oropharyngeal airway (n = 25) or a laryngeal mask airway (n = 25) device was inserted after induction of anesthesia intravenously using 2 mg/kg propofol. While anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, the leak pressure, leak fraction (the fractional difference between the inspired and expired tidal volume), minimum fresh gas flow rate, and need for airway manipulations were determined. The anesthesia provider who inserted the device completed an evaluation form at the end of the 15-min study period. RESULTS: Positive-pressure ventilation was established successfully on the first attempt in 92% of the patients when the cuffed oropharyngeal airway was used and in 88% of the patients when the laryngeal mask airway device was used. However, manipulations of the airway device were necessary more frequently (8 vs. 1 patient; P < 0.05) and the leak pressure was less (22 +/- 6 cm water vs. 26 +/- 5 cm water; P < 0.05) with the cuffed oropharyngeal airway than with the laryngeal mask airway. In addition, the leak fraction (0.19 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.22; P < 0.05) and the minimum fresh gas flow rate (1.3 +/- 1.5 vs. 2.4 +/- 2.5; P = 0.12) were less in the laryngeal mask airway group. CONCLUSIONS: Positive-pressure ventilation is possible with the laryngeal mask airway and cuffed oropharyngeal airway devices. Although the cuffed oropharyngeal airway can be inserted easily by inexperienced users with a high first-attempt success rate (> 90%), manipulations of the device may be required to maintain a patent airway. The laryngeal mask airway device allows positive-pressure ventilation at slightly greater peak inspiratory pressures. (+info)
(2/497) Preliminary evaluation of a new prototype laryngeal mask in children.
We have assessed a prototype laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) in 50 anaesthetized children for ease of insertion, oropharyngeal leak pressures, gastric insufflation and fibreoptic position. The pLMA has a second smaller mask, which rests against the upper oesophageal sphincter, and a second cuff to increase the seal pressure of the glottic mask. All insertions were graded as easy and an effective airway was achieved in all patients. Oropharyngeal leak pressure was > 40 cm H2O in 49 of 50 patients. Gastric insufflation was not detected by epigastric auscultation. In 46 of 50 patients, the vocal cords were seen via a fibreoptic laryngoscope. One patient regurgitated clear fluid, but aspiration did not occur. On removal, blood staining was detected in three of 50 children. We conclude that the pLMA was easy to insert, facilitated high airway pressure ventilation and may provide some protection against gastric insufflation. (+info)
(3/497) A comparative evaluation of Etest and broth microdilution methods for fluconazole and itraconazole susceptibility testing of Candida spp.
The Etest strip is a promising tool of broad application in clinical microbiology. The method provides MIC readings and is easier to perform than broth microdilution. We carried out a study to compare the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole obtained by the Etest with those obtained by broth microdilution, performed according to the guidelines of the NCCLS document M27-A, with 402 clinical isolates (360 Candida albicans, 17 Candida tropicalis, nine Candida krusei, nine Candida glabrata and seven Candida parapsilosis) and seven control isolates. The agreement between MICs by the two methods (at +/- 2 dilutions) was 74.5% for fluconazole and 61.4% for itraconazole. These results suggest that further development is necessary to standardize the medium and incubation conditions before introduction of the Etest as a routine method in the clinical microbiology laboratory for fluconazole and itraconazole susceptibility testing. (+info)
(4/497) Association of plasma levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and oropharyngeal Candida colonization.
The pathophysiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 is poorly understood. Association between oropharyngeal yeast carriage and various clinical factors in HIV-1-infected patients was studied in 83 patients with no clinical evidence of thrush and no recent antifungal use. Of the clinical factors measured, the only correlate of yeast colonization was with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.001), whereas the correlation with CD4 cell count was poor (P=.36). By multivariable regression modeling, plasma HIV-1 RNA was the only parameter that correlated with the extent of colonization with Candida infection (P=.003). These data indicate that the presence and amount of asymptomatic oropharyngeal yeast carriage in persons with HIV-1 infection is more significantly correlated with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than with CD4 cell count. Further studies on the effect of HIV-1 on oropharyngeal yeast colonization, infection, and local immunity are warranted. (+info)
(5/497) Cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) as an adjunct to fibreoptic tracheal intubation.
The cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) was evaluated as an adjunct to oral and nasal fibreoptic tracheal intubation in 40 adult patients during general anaesthesia. Time from start to completion of intubation decreased rapidly with experience (median time 138 s). We conclude that the COPA may be a useful adjunct to fibreoptic tracheal intubation, allowing control and support of the airway during the procedure, using various anaesthetic techniques, in an acceptable amount of time. The ability to perform fibreoptic tracheal intubation while effectively supporting the airway using the COPA may be advantageous in managing the difficult airway and in trainee education. (+info)
(6/497) Lemierre's syndrome (necrobacillosis).
Lemierre's syndrome or postanginal septicaemia (necrobacillosis) is caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection with secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and frequent metastatic infections. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the most common pathogen isolated from the patients. The interval between the oropharyngeal infection and the onset of the septicaemia is usually short. The most common sites of septic embolisms are the lungs and joints, and other locations can be affected. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose the syndrome. Computed tomography of the neck with contrast is the most useful study to detect internal jugular vein thrombosis. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotic therapy and drainage of septic foci. The role of anticoagulation is controversial. Ligation or excision of the internal jugular vein may be needed in some cases. (+info)
(7/497) Experimental infection of the cane mouse Zygodontomys brevicauda (family Muridae) with guanarito virus (Arenaviridae), the etiologic agent of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever.
Chronic infections in specific rodents appear to be crucial to the long-term persistence of arenaviruses in nature. The cane mouse, Zygodontomys brevicauda, is a natural host of Guanarito virus (family Arenaviridae), the etiologic agent of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the natural history of Guanarito virus infection in Z. brevicauda. Thirty-nine laboratory-reared cane mice each were inoculated subcutaneously with 3.0 log10 plaque-forming units of the Guanarito virus prototype strain INH-95551. No lethality was associated with infection in any animal, regardless of age at inoculation. The 13 newborn, 14 weanling, and 8 of the 12 adult animals developed chronic viremic infections characterized by persistent shedding of infectious virus in oropharyngeal secretions and urine. These findings indicate that Guanarito virus infection in Z. brevicauda can be chronic and thus support the concept that this rodent species is the natural reservoir of Guanarito virus. (+info)
(8/497) Decreased point prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) oropharyngeal colonization by mass immunization of Brazilian children less than 5 years old with hib polyribosylribitol phosphate polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in combination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine.
A protective herd effect has been described after susceptible populations of children are vaccinated with conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Hib carriage was studied in children aged 6-24 months attending day care centers in two cities in southern Brazil (Curitiba and Porto Alegre). In Curitiba, routine immunization with Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) in combination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine (PRP-T/DTP) has been offered since September 1996; DTP vaccine alone is routinely given in Porto Alegre. Children in Porto Alegre (n=643) were 8 times less likely to have received adequate Hib vaccination and 4 times more likely to be Hib carriers than children in Curitiba (n=647; i.e., point prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization, 4.8% vs. 1.2%). Point prevalence of carriage with non-type b or other nontypeable Hi was similar in children of both cities. There was a vaccination effect on carriage rates in children who received a primary 3-dose series, independent of the booster dose, suggesting that a booster may be unnecessary to induce population protection. (+info)