Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion. (+info)
(2/1961) Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds.
A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency. (+info)
(3/1961) Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology.
A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities. (+info)
(4/1961) Effects of pyrogallol, hydroquinone and duroquinone on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation and NO in the rat anococcygeus muscle.
1. The hypothesis that endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) protects the nitrergic transmitter from inactivation by superoxide and that this explains the lack of sensitivity of the transmitter to superoxide generators was tested in the rat isolated anococcygeus muscle. 2. Responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or to NO were not significantly affected by exogenous SOD or by the Cu/Zn SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). 3. Hydroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of responses to NO with an IC50 of 27 microM, and higher concentrations reduced relaxant responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation with an IC50 of 612 microM. The effects of hydroquinone were only slightly reversed by SOD, so it does not appear to be acting as a superoxide generator. 4. Pyrogallol produced a concentration-dependent reduction in responses to NO with an IC50 value of 39 microM and this effect was reversed by SOD (100-1000 u ml(-1)). Pyrogallol did not affect responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation. Treatment with DETCA did not alter the differentiating action of pyrogallol. 5. Duroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of relaxations to NO with an IC50 value of 240 microM and 100 microM slightly decreased nitrergic relaxations. After treatment with DETCA, duroquinone produced greater reductions of relaxant responses to NO and to nitrergic stimulation, the IC50 values being 8.5 microM for NO and 40 microM for nitrergic nerve stimulation: these reductions were reversed by SOD. 6. The findings do not support the hypothesis that the presence of Cu/Zn SOD explains the greater susceptibility of NO than the nitrergic transmitter to the superoxide generator pyrogallol, but suggest that it may play a role in the effects of duroquinone. (+info)
(5/1961) Hematopoietic stem cell tracking in vivo: a comparison of short-term and long-term repopulating cells.
We have previously demonstrated that we could separate long-term repopulating stem cells from cells that provided radioprotection (short-term repopulating cells) on the basis of size and suggested that this might be due to the quiescent nature of long-term repopulating cells. To further define the activity of these populations, we used a dye (PKH26), which incorporates into the membrane of cells and is equally distributed to daughter cells when they divide. We developed an assay, which allowed us to retrieve PKH26(+) long-term and short-term repopulating cells in the hematopoietic tissues of the recipients posttransplant. We were able to recover the labeled cells and determine their cell cycle activity, as well as their ability to reconstitute secondary lethally irradiated hosts in limiting dilution. The results of our assay suggest that long-term repopulating cells are quiescent in the bone marrow (BM) 48 hours after transplant. We were able to detect only a few labeled cells in the peripheral blood posttransplant and even though cells homed to both the spleen and BM, more long-term repopulating cells homed to the marrow and only these cells, which homed to the marrow, were capable of reconstituting lethally irradiated secondary hosts long-term. (+info)
(6/1961) 5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 is antihypertensive in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats.
We previously demonstrated a change in the receptors mediating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contraction in arteries of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-hypertensive rats. Specifically, contraction to 5-HT is mediated primarily by 5-HT2A receptors in arteries from normotensive sham rats and by both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in arteries from hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that the 5-HT2B receptor may play a role in maintaining the high blood pressure of DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats, and herein we provide data connecting in vitro and in vivo findings. The endothelium-denuded isolated superior mesenteric artery of DOCA-salt rats displayed a marked increase in maximum contraction to the newly available 5-HT2B-receptor agonist BW-723C86 compared with that of arteries from sham rats, confirming that the 5-HT2B receptor plays a greater role in 5-HT-induced contraction in arteries from DOCA-salt rats. In chronically instrumented rats, the 5-HT2B-receptor antagonist LY-272015 (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg iv at 30-min intervals) was given cumulatively 1 time/wk during 4 wk of continued DOCA-salt treatment. LY-272015 did not reduce blood pressure of the sham-treated rats at any time or dose. However, LY-272015 (1.0 and 3. 0 mg/kg) significantly reduced mean blood pressure in a subgroup of week 3 (-20 mmHg) and week 4 DOCA-salt (-40 mmHg) rats that had extremely high blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure approximately 200 mmHg). Blockade of 5-HT2B receptors by in vivo administration of LY-272015 (3.0 mg/kg) was verified by observing reduced 5-HT-induced contraction in rat stomach fundus, the tissue from which the 5-HT2B receptor was originally cloned. These data support the novel hypothesis that 5-HT2B-receptor expression is induced during the development of DOCA-salt hypertension and contributes to the maintenance of severe blood pressure elevations. (+info)
(7/1961) Rapid and sensitive quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mouse tissues by continuous fluorescent monitoring of PCR.
The quantity of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in tissue samples is an important determinant for infection studies in the mouse model of Lyme disease. This report presents the development of a rapid and sensitive external-standard-based PCR assay for the absolute quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse tissue samples. The assay uses a double-stranded DNA dye to continuously monitor product formation and in less than an hour was able to quantify samples ranging up to 6 log units in concentration. The PCR efficiencies of the sample and the standard were matched by using a standard composed of purified B. burgdorferi chromosome mixed with tissue-matched mouse genome lacking bacterial DNA. Normalization of B. burgdorferi quantities to the mouse nidogen gene allowed comparison of B. burgdorferi numbers in samples isolated from different tissues and strains. PCR analysis of the chromosomal gene recA in cultured B. burgdorferi was consistent with a single recA per bacterium. The parameters defined in this assay should be applicable to quantification of other organisms, even infectious agents for which no ready source of DNA standard is available. In summary, this report presents a rapid external-standard-based PCR method for the quantification of B. burgdorferi in mouse DNA samples. (+info)
(8/1961) Marked inhibition of tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model by a novel synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor AG3340.
Synthetic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors have activity against a variety of tumors in preclinical models but have not been studied in gliomas. We determined the effect of AG3340, a novel synthetic MMP inhibitor with Ki values against gelatinases in the low picomolar range, on the growth of a human malignant glioma cell line (U87) in SCID-NOD mice. Mice were injected s.c. with U87 cells. Tumors were allowed to grow to a size of approximately 0.5 x 0.5 cm (after about 3 weeks), and the mice were randomized to receive either: (a) 100 mg/kg AG3340 in vehicle; or (b) vehicle control (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.1% pluronic F68), both given daily i.p. Tumor area was measured twice weekly, and animals were sacrificed when moribund, or earlier if premorbid histology was examined. In vivo inhibition of tumor growth was profound, with AG3340 decreasing tumor size by 78% compared with controls after 31 days (when controls were sacrificed; P < 0.01, Wilcoxon test). Control animals survived 31 days after the i.p. injections began, and AG3340 mice survived 71 days, representing a >2-fold increase in survival associated with tumor growth delay. Histological examination found that AG3340-treated tumors were smaller, had lower rates of proliferation, and significantly less invasion than control-treated tumors. Hepatic or pulmonary metastases were not seen in either group. In a separate experiment, the tumors were smaller and sampled after a shorter duration of treatment; the changes in proliferation were more marked and occurred earlier than differences in tumor invasion between the two groups. Furthermore, in vitro cell growth was not inhibited at AG3340 concentrations of <1 mM. AG3340 plasma concentrations in vivo, 1 h after administration, ranged from 67 to 365 nM. Thus, AG3340 produced a profound inhibition of glioma tumor growth and invasion. AG3340 markedly increased survival in this in vivo glioma model. Treatment with AG3340 may be potentially useful in patients with malignant gliomas. (+info)