(1/941) Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia.

BACKGROUND: Although a family history of schizophrenia is the best-established risk factor for schizophrenia, environmental factors such as the place and season of birth may also be important. METHODS: Using data from the Civil Registration System in Denmark, we established a population-based cohort of 1.75 million persons whose mothers were Danish women born between 1935 and 1978. We linked this cohort to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and identified 2669 cases of schizophrenia among cohort members and additional cases among their parents. RESULTS: The respective relative risks of schizophrenia for persons with a mother, father, or sibling who had schizophrenia were 9.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 7.24 to 11.96), 7.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.10 to 10.16), and 6.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.38 to 9.09), as compared with persons with no affected parents or siblings. The risk of schizophrenia was associated with the degree of urbanization of the place of birth (relative risk for the capital vs. rural areas, 2.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.70). The risk was also significantly associated with the season of birth; it was highest for births in February and March and lowest for births in August and September. The population attributable risk was 5.5 percent for a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling, 34.6 percent for urban place of birth, and 10.5 percent for the season of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling is associated with the highest relative risk of having the disease, the place and season of birth account for many more cases on a population basis.  (+info)

(2/941) Type 2 diabetes: evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs.

We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score (MLS) was 3.08 on 20p (location, chi = 19.5 cM) under an additive model, whereas the weighted MLS was 2.06 on 20q (chi = 57 cM, recurrence risk,lambda(s) = 1. 25, P = 0.009). Weighted logarithm of odds scores of 2.00 (chi = 69.5 cM, P = 0.010) and 1.92 (chi = 18.5 cM, P = 0.013) were also observed. Ordered subset analyses based on sibships with extreme mean values of diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded sets of families who contributed disproportionately to the peaks. Two-hour glucose levels in offspring of diabetic individuals gave a MLS of 2. 12 (P = 0.0018) at 9.5 cM. Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a (HNF-4alpha) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. We found no evidence that sequence changes in this gene accounted for the linkage results we observed.  (+info)

(3/941) Mutations in the nebulin gene associated with autosomal recessive nemaline myopathy.

The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene TPM3. The typical form of nemaline myopathy is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, the locus of which we previously assigned to chromosome 2q21.2-q22. We show here that mutations in the nebulin gene located within this region are associated with the disease. The nebulin protein is a giant protein found in the thin filaments of striated muscle. A variety of nebulin isoforms are thought to contribute to the molecular diversity of Z discs. We have studied the 3' end of the 20. 8-kb cDNA encoding the Z disc part of the 800-kDa protein and describe six disease-associated mutations in patients from five families of different ethnic origins. In two families with consanguineous parents, the patients were homozygous for point mutations. In one family with nonconsanguineous parents, the affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for two different mutations, and in two further families with one detected mutation each, haplotypes are compatible with compound heterozygosity. Immunofluorescence studies with antibodies specific to the C-terminal region of nebulin indicate that the mutations may cause protein truncation possibly associated with loss of fiber-type diversity, which may be relevant to disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

(4/941) Mutations in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency.

Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation caused by defective carnitine transport. This disease presents early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia or later in life with skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. The gene for this condition maps to 5q31.2-32 and OCTN2, an organic cation/carnitine transporter, also maps to the same chromosomal region. Here we test the causative role of OCTN2 in primary carnitine deficiency by searching for mutations in this gene in affected patients. Fibroblasts from patients with primary carnitine deficiency lacked mediated carnitine transport. Transfection of patient's fibroblasts with the OCTN2 cDNA partially restored carnitine transport. Sequencing of the OCTN2 gene revealed different mutations in two unrelated patients. The first patient was homozygous (and both parents heterozygous) for a single base pair substitution converting the codon for Arg-282 to a STOP codon (R282X). The second patient was a compound heterozygote for a paternal 1-bp insertion producing a STOP codon (Y401X) and a maternal 1-bp deletion that produced a frameshift creating a subsequent STOP codon (458X). These mutations decreased the levels of mature OCTN2 mRNA and resulted in nonfunctional transporters, confirming that defects in the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2 are responsible for primary carnitine deficiency.  (+info)

(5/941) Familial aggregation of blood pressure in a rural Chinese community.

This study investigated blood pressure in 1,183 Chinese nuclear families (mother, father, and first two children) via a cross-sectional 1994-1997 survey. The mother's, the father's, and the first sibling's blood pressures were each significantly and independently related to the second sibling's blood pressure after adjustment for sex, age, height, weight, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The association was consistent across the four age strata (6-10, 11-14, 15-19, and > or = 20 years). The rate of high systolic blood pressure in the second sibling was lowest (2.3%) when both parents and the first sibling were in the low blood pressure tertile (low-low group) and highest (26.0%) when these family members were in the high blood pressure tertile (high-high group). The rate was intermediate if only the parents (10.7%, high-low group) or the first sibling (8.4%, low-high group) was in the high blood pressure tertile. As compared with the low-low group, the odds ratios for the high-high, high-low, and low-high groups were 14.3 (95% confidence interval 4.3-48.2), 4.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2-15.6), and 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1-14.4), respectively. A similar pattern was found for diastolic blood pressure. The data indicate a strong familial aggregation of blood pressure in this population and show that such a familial influence on blood pressure can be detected from early childhood onward.  (+info)

(6/941) Autoantibody appearance and risk for development of childhood diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the 2-year analysis of the German BABYDIAB Study.

The temporal development of autoantibodies was studied in 1,353 offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes. Islet cell antibodies (ICAs) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase, and IA-2 were measured at birth, 9 months, 2 years, and 5 years of age. At birth, no offspring had islet autoimmunity other than maternally acquired antibodies, which were shown to influence antibody prevalence up to age 6 months. Antibodies detected thereafter were likely to represent a true de novo production, since prevalences were the same for offspring from mothers and fathers with diabetes, antibodies detected at 9 months were almost always confirmed in the 2-year sample and were associated with an increased likelihood of having or developing other antibodies. By 2 years of age, autoantibodies appeared in 11% of offspring, 3.5% having more than one autoantibody. IAAs were detected most frequently, and few had autoantibodies in the absence of IAAs. In 23 offspring with multiple islet autoantibodies, IAAs preceded other antibodies in 10 cases and were first detected concurrently with other antibodies in 12 and after detection of other antibodies in 1. Development of additional antibodies and changes in levels, including decline of IAAs at older age, was frequent. Nine children, all with IAAs and ICAs, developed diabetes. Overall cumulative risk for disease by 5 years of age was 1.8% (95% CI 0.2-3.4) and was 50% (95% CI 19-81) for offspring with more than one autoantibody in their 2-year sample. Autoimmunity associated with childhood diabetes is an early event and a dynamic process. Presence of IAAs is a consistent feature of this autoimmunity, and IAA detection can identify children at risk.  (+info)

(7/941) Parental hyperdynamic circulation predicts insulin resistance in offspring: The Tecumseh Offspring Study.

Controversy surrounds the pathogenetic mechanisms of the relationship between hyperdynamic circulation and insulin resistance. Two hundred eight children and young adults (mean age, 17.2+/-3.0 years; range, 11 to 26 years) from the Tecumseh Offspring Study whose parents had been assessed with Doppler echocardiography at the age of 34 years during the previous Tecumseh Blood Pressure Study were considered for this analysis. Offspring data were stratified according to tertiles of parental cardiac index. Parents in the top cardiac index tertile had increased heart rate (P=0.001), stroke volume (P=0.0001), left ventricular fractional shortening (P=0.02), and plasma epinephrine (P=0.02) compared with parents in the other tertiles. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were similar in all groups. Offspring of parents with a high cardiac index had greater BMI (P=0.001), skinfold thickness (P=0.008), and waist/hip ratio (P=0.02), higher diastolic blood pressure (P=0.02) and plasma insulin level (P=0.001), and higher heart rate during Stroop's color test (P=0.02) than offspring of parents with a lower cardiac index. In a multivariate regression analysis, offspring BMI was predicted by parental BMI and cardiac index (P=0.0001 and 0.003, respectively). The mother-child relationship explained most of the cardiac index-BMI association. In summary, parental hyperdynamic circulation was an important predictor of overweight, abnormal fat distribution, increased blood pressure, and hyperinsulinemia in offspring. Our results illustrate the complexity of interaction between a genetic tendency and its phenotypic expression. We speculate that the degree of beta-adrenergic responsiveness may be a major determinant of the phenotypic differences between the parents and offspring found in this study.  (+info)

(8/941) Maximum-likelihood generalized heritability estimate for blood pressure in Nigerian families.

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is more common in relatives of hypertensives than in relatives of normotensives, indicating familial resemblance of the BP phenotypes. Most published studies have been conducted in westernized societies. To assess the ability to generalize these estimates, we examined familial patterns of BP in a population-based sample of 510 nuclear families, including 1552 individuals (320 fathers, 370 mothers, 475 sons, and 387 daughters) from Ibadan, Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in this community is low (body mass index: fathers, 21.6; mothers, 23.6; sons, 19.2; and daughters=21.0 kg/m2). The BP phenotype used in all analyses was created from the best regression model by standardizing the age-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to 0 mean and unit variance. Heritability was estimated by use of the computer program SEGPATH from the most parsimonious model of "no spouse and neither gender nor generation difference" as 45% for SBP and 43% for DBP. The lack of a significant spouse correlation is consistent with little or no influence of the common familial environment. However, the heritability estimate of <50% for both SBP and DBPs reinforces the importance of the nonshared environmental effect.  (+info)