(1/46) Disseminated aspergillosis involving the brain: distribution and imaging characteristics.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Systemic invasive aspergillosis involves the brain through hematogenous dissemination. A retrospective review of 18 patients with aspergillosis involving the brain was performed in order to present imaging findings and thereby broaden the understanding of the distribution and imaging characteristics of brain Aspergillus infection and to facilitate its early diagnosis. METHODS: The neuroimaging studies of 17 biopsy- or autopsy-proved cases and one clinically diagnosed case were examined retrospectively by two neuroradiologists. The studies were evaluated for anatomic distribution of lesions, signal characteristics of lesions, enhancement, hemorrhage, and progression on serial studies (when performed). Medical records, biopsy reports, and autopsy findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirteen of 18 patients had involvement of the basal nuclei and/or thalami. Nine of the 10 patients with lesions at the corticomedullary junction also had lesions in the basal nuclei or thalami. Callosal lesions were seen in seven patients. Progression of lesion number and size was seen in all 11 patients in whom serial studies had been performed. Enhancement was minimal or absent in most cases. There was gross hemorrhage in eight of the 18, and definite ring-enhancement in three. CONCLUSION: Among our cases, lesions in perforating artery territories were more common than those at the corticomedullary junction. Ring enhancement and gross hemorrhage may be present, but are not necessary for the prospective diagnosis. (+info)
(2/46) Fungal colonization and invasive fungal infections following allogeneic BMT using metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole or ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as intestinal decontamination.
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are increasingly diagnosed in patients undergoing allogeneic BMT. We have previously shown that the addition of metronidazole to ciprofloxacin for gastrointestinal bacterial decontamination significantly reduces the incidence of grades II-IV aGVHD by reduction of the anaerobic intestinal bacterial flora. Here, we found that the combined use of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis increased intestinal yeast colonization when compared to ciprofloxacin and fluconazole alone (P < 0.01). Based on the EORTC criteria, a total of 18 out of 134 study patients developed IFI: seven of 68 (10%) patients who received metronidazole compared to 11 of the 66 (17%) patients decontaminated without metronidazole developed IFI (log-rank P = 0.36). Lethal IFI occurred in two of seven patients receiving metronidazole and in four of 11 patients without anaerobic decontamination. In conclusion, bacterial intestinal decontamination using metronidazole as an antibiotic with activity against most anaerobic intestinal bacteria significantly increases the intestinal yeast burden without influencing the incidence of IFI in patients undergoing allogeneic BMT. (+info)
(3/46) Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients with probable cerebral aspergillosis.
The Aspergillus galactomannan test was performed on cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 5 patients with probable cerebral aspergillosis and from 16 control patients. Cerebrospinal fluid galactomannan levels were significantly higher in aspergillosis patients, and most galactomannan was produced intrathecally. Comparison of serum galactomannan values in pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis patients showed significant overlapping. Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan in cerebrospinal fluid may be diagnostic of cerebral aspergillosis. (+info)
(4/46) Mycotic infections of brain.
Six cases of mycotic infectation of the brain are presented. All the patients were in the age group ranging from 18 years to 38 years. the duration of clinical symptoms varied from 6 days to 7 months. Computerized tomographic visualization of brain revealed a mass lesion in all. Operative findings were suggestive of tumour in 3 cases. All the patients were non-immunocompromised. There was history of previous ear infection and sinusitis in one case. Histopathological examination of biopsy tissue showed dichotomously branching septate fungal hyphae highlighted by special stains like methanamin silver and PAS in all cases. (+info)
(5/46) Development of a murine model of cerebral aspergillosis.
Central nervous system (CNS) Aspergillus infection has a mortality rate in humans that approaches 95%. Because no animal models are available for studying this infection, we sought to develop a murine model of CNS aspergillosis. Inconsistent data were obtained for nonimmunosuppressed CD-1, C57BL/6, and DBA/2N mice after infection by midline intracranial injection of Aspergillus fumigatus. CD-1 mice given cyclophosphamide to produce immunosuppression had continuous pancytopenia. Dose-finding studies in CD-1 mice showed that infection with 5 x 106 conidia/mouse consistently caused 100% mortality by day 5-8; no mice died before day 3. Histologic examination of samples of brain tissue showed focal abscesses containing Aspergillus hyphae. Fungus burdens in brain were higher than those in other organs, although Aspergillus disseminated to the kidneys and the spleen. The model we established provides an opportunity to study immune responses to and therapeutic options for CNS disease in an immunologically defined, genetically manipulable, and inexpensive species. (+info)
(6/46) Intracranial invasive aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus: a successful treatment with high-dose itraconazole in three cases.
We report three cases of intracranial aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus in immunocompetent patients. The patients presented with an orbital apex syndrome in that a unilateral loss of vision and cranial nerve III palsy were seen in all cases and a contralateral involvement was also seen in one case. Despite the initial treatment with a conventional dose of itraconazole (ITCZ, 200 mg/day), the neurological deficits failed to improve and the granulomatous inflammation was not suppressed. Therefore, we treated with a combination of a high dose of ITCZ at 500-1000 mg/day (16-24 mg/kg/day) and amphotericin B (AMPH-B) at 0.5 mg/kg/day, in conjunction with a pulse dose of methylprednisolone at 1000 mg/day. Two cases responded favorably in that the ocular movements completely recovered, and their maximum serum concentrations of the hydroxy ITCZ were 7816 ng/ml and 5370 ng/ml. However, the other case worsened, despite ITCZ treatment at 16 mg/kg/day, and the serum concentration of the hydroxy ITCZ was 3863 ng/ml. The surgical decompression of the cavernous sinus via an extradural approach was performed, and the dose of ITCZ was increased to 24 mg/kg/day. The resulting serum concentration of the hydroxy ITCZ was 4753 ng/ml, and the outcome of this case has been favorable. These results suggest that a high blood level of the hydroxy ITCZ (more than 4500 ng/ml) is a prerequisite for the successful treatment of intracranial aspergillosis and that the combination treatment of ITCZ with AMPH-B would be preferred. The concomitant use of steroid and/or surgical decompression should be considered, if the invasiveness is not well-controlled in spite of intensive medical therapy. (+info)
(7/46) MR features of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient: correlation with histology and elemental analysis.
We report an unusual case of cerebral aspergillosis in a young immunocompetent patient who also had dissemination to other end organs. The patient presented with a large mass in the left cerebral hemisphere. Elemental analysis of biopsy specimens revealed elevated levels of iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium, chromium, and nickel that correlated with a peripheral rim of hypointensity on T2-weighted images. (+info)
(8/46) Cerebral aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in AIDS patient: first culture-proven case reported in Brazil.
Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare cause of brain expansive lesion in AIDS patients. We report the first culture-proven case of brain abscess due to Aspergillus fumigatus in a Brazilian AIDS patient. The patient, a 26 year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and history of pulmonary tuberculosis and cerebral toxoplasmosis, had fever, cough, dyspnea, and two episodes of seizures. The brain computerized tomography (CT) showed a bi-parietal and parasagittal hypodense lesion with peripheral enhancement, and significant mass effect. There was started anti-Toxoplasma treatment. Three weeks later, the patient presented mental confusion, and a new brain CT evidenced increase in the lesion. He underwent brain biopsy, draining 10 mL of purulent material. The direct mycological examination revealed septated and hyaline hyphae. There was started amphotericin B deoxycholate. The culture of the material demonstrated presence of the Aspergillus fumigatus. The following two months, the patient was submitted to three surgeries, with insertion of drainage catheter and administration of amphotericin B intralesional. Three months after hospital admission, his neurological condition suffered discrete changes. However, he died due to intrahospital pneumonia. Brain abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of the brain expansive lesions in AIDS patients in Brazil. (+info)