(1/2372) Different contributions of endothelin-A and endothelin-B receptors in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension in rats.
We investigated the involvement of actions mediated by endothelin-A (ETA) and endothelin-B (ETB) receptors in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension in rats. Two weeks after the start of DOCA-salt treatment, rats were given ABT-627 (10 [mg/kg]/d), a selective ETA receptor antagonist; A-192621 (30 [mg/kg]/d), a selective ETB receptor antagonist; or their vehicle for 2 weeks. Uninephrectomized rats without DOCA-salt treatment served as controls. Treatment with DOCA and salt for 2 weeks led to a mild but significant hypertension; in vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats, systolic blood pressure increased markedly after 3 to 4 weeks. Daily administration of ABT-627 for 2 weeks almost abolished any further increases in blood pressure, whereas A-192621 did not affect the development of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension. When the degree of vascular hypertrophy of the aorta was histochemically evaluated at 4 weeks, there were significant increases in wall thickness, wall area, and wall-to-lumen ratio in vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats compared with uninephrectomized control rats. The development of vascular hypertrophy was markedly suppressed by ABT-627. In contrast, treatment with A-192621 significantly exaggerated these vascular changes. In vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats, renal blood flow and creatinine clearance decreased, and urinary excretion of protein, blood urea nitrogen, fractional excretion of sodium, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity increased. Such damage was overcome by treatment with ABT-627 but not with A-192621; indeed, the latter agent led to worsening of the renal dysfunction. Histopathologic examination of the kidney in vehicle-treated DOCA-salt rats revealed tubular dilatation and atrophy as well as thickening of small arteries. Such damage was reduced in animals given ABT-627, whereas more severe histopathologic changes were observed in A-192621-treated animals. These results strongly support the view that ETA receptor-mediated action plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension. On the other hand, it seems likely that the ETB receptor-mediated action protects against vascular and renal injuries in this model of hypertension. A selective ETA receptor antagonist is likely to be useful for treatment of subjects with mineralocorticoid-dependent hypertension, whereas ETB-selective antagonism alone is detrimental to such cases. (+info)
(2/2372) 22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure.
BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease. (+info)
(3/2372) Mycophenolate mofetil prevents the progressive renal failure induced by 5/6 renal ablation in rats.
BACKGROUND: Extensive renal ablation is associated with progressive sclerosis of the remnant kidney. Because lymphocytes and monocytes accumulate in the remnant kidney, it is likely that they play a role in the renal scarring. Therefore, we treated rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a drug that has an antiproliferative effect and that suppresses the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats with 5/6Nx received MMF (30 mg. kg-1. day-1 by daily gastric gavage, N = 15) or vehicle (N = 16). Ten additional rats were sham operated. All rats were fed a 30% protein diet. Body weight, serum creatinine, and urinary protein excretion were determined weekly. Lipid peroxidation, as a measure of oxidative stress observed by urinary malondialdehyde determinations, was performed every two weeks. Histologic studies were done in the remnant kidney four weeks (9 rats from the vehicle-treated group, 7 rats from the MMF group, and 5 sham-operated rats) and eight weeks after surgery (the remaining rats). Glomerular volume, sclerosis in glomeruli (segmental and global) and interstitium (semiquantitative scale), infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages (CD43- and ED1-positive cells), and expression of adhesion molecules (CD54, CD18, and CD11b) were analyzed. RESULTS: MMF treatment prevented the progressive increment in serum creatinine and the proteinuria observed in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats during the eight weeks of observation (P < 0.01). Weight gain was comparable in the MMF-treated and sham-operated rats, whereas weight gain was decreased in untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Excretion of malondialdehyde increased after surgery but returned sooner to control levels in the MMF-treated rats. Increments in glomerular size and mean arterial blood pressure induced by renal ablation were not modified by MMF treatment. Eight weeks after surgery, segmental sclerosis was present in 48.4 +/- 8.35% (+/- sd) glomeruli in the vehicle-treated group versus 25 +/- 10.5% in the MMF-treated group (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was reduced significantly with MMF treatment (P < 0.001). Infiltration with CD43- and ED1-positive cells in glomeruli and interstitium was two to five times lower in MMF-treated rats (P < 0.01). Expression of adhesion molecules CD18 and CD11b was similarly reduced. CONCLUSION: MMF ameliorates the progressive renal damage in the remnant kidney after 5/6Nx. This effect is associated with a reduction in the infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas glomerular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension are unchanged. (+info)
(4/2372) Influence of renal failure on intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin in rats.
Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats. (+info)
(5/2372) Altered vascular reactivity following partial nephrectomy in the rat: a possible mechanism of the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin.
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess whether the antihypertensive effect of heparin in rats after renal mass reduction (RMR) is related to changes in nitric oxide activity, and to study in vitro the altered behaviour of resistance-sized arteries induced by chronic administration of heparin. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two experimental protocols. In the first protocol, RMR rats received heparin (250 units/day s.c.) and tail systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly for 4 weeks. In a subgroup, urinary nitrate excretion (UNO3) and in vitro vascular reactivity of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds were measured 2 weeks after RMR. The second protocol assessed whether inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME (70 mg/l added to the drinking water) prevents the blood-pressure-lowering effect of heparin. RESULTS: In untreated RMR rats SBP increased from 111+/-3 mmHg to 127+/-5 mmHg at 2 weeks and 139+/-5 mmHg at 4 weeks. In contrast, in RMR rats treated with heparin, SBP was 114 +/-3 mmHg at 2 weeks and 115+/-4 mmHg at 4 weeks (P<0.05 for both). Treatment with L-NAME increased SBP both in untreated and heparin-treated RMR groups. Two weeks after nephrectomy daily urinary nitrate increased significantly more in RMR rats treated with heparin than in untreated RMR rats (22+/-2 vs 14.2+/-2.3 micromol/day, P<0.05). In vitro studies performed at 2 weeks showed that vessels of untreated RMR rats had a blunted vasodilator response to acetylcholine that was restored to levels similar to that of controls in the heparin-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, in rats after renal ablation, heparin may exert its antihypertensive effect, at least in part, by affecting the altered behaviour of resistance vessels during the development phase of hypertension. Increased NO production may contribute to this effect. (+info)
(6/2372) Maintenance of normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in uraemic and hypertensive resistance vessels.
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide system has been implicated in several diseases with vascular complications including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Despite the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular complications in renal failure few studies have examined vascular and endothelial function in uraemia. We therefore chose to study possible abnormalities of the nitric oxide vasodilator system in an animal model of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Adult spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats were subjected to a 5/6 nephrectomy with control animals having sham operations. After 4 weeks blood pressure was recorded and the animals were sacrificed. Branches of the mesenteric arteries were isolated and mounted on a Mulvany myograph. All experiments were performed in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M). The vessels were first preconstricted with noradrenaline, exposed to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-4) M) and subsequently to sodium nitroprusside (10(-5) M). RESULTS: There was no difference in the relaxation of the four groups of vessels to any of the concentrations of acetylcholine used nor was there any significant difference in the EC50s (control Wistar Kyoto 6.1+/-1.4 x 10(-8) M; uraemic Wistar Kyoto 5.4+/-0.8 x 10(-8) M; control spontaneous hypertensive rats 4.5+/-0.6 x 10(-8) M; uraemic spontaneous hypertensive rats 6+/-0.7 x 10(-8) M). Vasodilatation in response to sodium nitroprusside was unchanged in uraemic vessels. In addition the vascular responses to both acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were unaltered in spontaneous hypertensive rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that normal agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation is maintained in experimental uraemia and hypertension. (+info)
(7/2372) Effect of verapamil treatment on compensatory renal growth in mice.
Calcium has been shown to control the proliferation of various cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study we have attempted to modify compensatory renal growth by pharmacological interventions in mice who have undergone uninephrectomy. The effect of a calcium channel blocker verapamil was investigated. Unilateral nephrectomy of intact male mice produced the expected increase in weight of the remaining kidney by 67.5+/-8.1%. This rise was accompanied by a proportional increase in RNA. In mice, cell hypertrophy was found to be a major factor in compensatory renal growth. Verapamil given in a i.p. dose of 1.0 or 2.0 mg/day/mouse attenuated the growth of the remaining kidney so that its weight rose by only 48.2+/-6% and 28.2+/-4.4 %, respectively. In vivo administration of verapamil decreased the degree of compensatory renal growth and this growth inhibiting effect was directly proportional to the dose. (+info)
(8/2372) Nature and severity of the glomerular response to nephron reduction is strain-dependent in mice.
Nephron reduction is an important factor in the development of glomerulosclerosis. In a study of the oligosyndactyly (Os) mutation that causes a congenital 50% reduction in nephron number, we previously found that ROP Os/+ mice developed glomerulosclerosis whereas C57B1/6J Os/+ mice did not. We concluded that the predisposition to glomerulosclerosis depended largely on the genetic background, the ROP being sclerosis-prone whereas the C57 strain was sclerosis-resistant. In the current experiments we asked whether the intensity of the sclerotic response to nephron reduction in the ROP strain was related to the time at which it occurred, ie, a pre- or post-natal event. We also determined whether the absence of lesions in C57 Os/+ mice was caused by a higher threshold for the induction of a sclerotic response in C57 mice. We further examined the relationship between glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis. C57 +/+, C57 Os/+, ROP +/+, and ROP Os/+ mice were uninephrectomized (NX) at age 10 weeks and followed for 8 weeks. We found no sclerotic changes in NX C57 +/+ and C57 Os/+ mice, despite a 75% reduction in nephron number in the latter. In contrast, both NX ROP +/+ and NX ROP Os/+ mice had glomerulosclerosis, which was more severe in the NX ROP Os/+ mice. Examination of extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation at the mRNA level revealed that synthesis exceeded degradation in ROP Os/+ mice. The lesions in NX ROP +/+ were less severe than in sham-operated ROP/Os mice, suggesting that the timing of nephron reduction affected the amplitude of the sclerotic response in this strain. Following NX, an increase in glomerular volume was found in C57 +/+, ROP +/+, and ROP Os/+ mice. However, NX did not lead to a further increase in glomerular volume in C57 Os/+ mice. We make three conclusions: 1) sclerosis was more severe in the ROP strain when nephron reduction occurred in utero; 2) the absence of glomerulosclerosis in C57 mice was not related to a higher threshold for a sclerosis response in this strain; and 3) whereas glomerular size continued to increase as nephron number decreased in ROP mice, it reached a plateau in C57 mice. (+info)