Doxorubicin is a very effective antitumor agent, but its clinical use is limited by the occurrence of a cumulative dose-related cardiotoxicity, resulting in congestive heart failure. 7-Monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), a flavonoid belonging to the semisynthetic hydroxyethylrutoside family, has been shown to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity when administered i.p. at a dose of 500 mg/kg five times/week in combination with a weekly i.v. dose of doxorubicin. Such a dosing schedule would be very inconvenient in clinical practice. We therefore investigated a dosing schedule of one administration of monoHER just before doxorubicin. The electrocardiogram was measured telemetrically in mice after the combined treatment of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg, i.v.) with one dose of monoHER (500 mg/kg, i.p., administered 1 h before doxorubicin) for 6 weeks. These data were compared with the five times/week schedule (500 mg/kg, i.p., administered 1 h before doxorubicin and every 24 h for 4 days). The increase of the ST interval was used as a measure for cardiotoxicity. It was shown that 500 mg/kg monoHER administered only 1 h before doxorubicin provided complete protection against the cardiotoxicity. This protection was present for at least 10 weeks after the last treatment. Because of the short half-life of monoHER, these results suggest that the presence of monoHER is only necessary during the highest plasma levels of doxorubicin. (+info)
(2/27) Flavonoids can replace alpha-tocopherol as an antioxidant.
Endogenous antioxidants such as the lipid-soluble vitamin E protect the cell membranes from oxidative damage. Glutathione seems to be able to regenerate alpha-tocopherol via a so-called free radical reductase. The transient protection by reduced glutathione (GSH) against lipid peroxidation in control liver microsomes is not observed in microsomes deficient in alpha-tocopherol. Introduction of antioxidant flavonoids, such as 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside, fisetin or naringenin, into the deficient microsomes restored the GSH-dependent protection, suggesting that flavonoids can take over the role of alpha-tocopherol as a chain-breaking antioxidant in liver microsomal membranes. (+info)
(3/27) Comparative trial of N-acetyl-cysteine, taurine, and oxerutin on skin and kidney damage in long-term experimental diabetes.
This study analyzes the effect of chronic treatment with different antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC], taurine, a combination of NAC and taurine, and oxerutin) on long-term experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats. Glycoxidative damage was evaluated in the skin; glomerular structural changes were studied with morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Oxerutin treatment and the combined NAC plus taurine treatment resulted in reduced accumulation of collagen-linked fluorescence in skin in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. All treatments except taurine reduced glomerular accumulation of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and protected against the increase in glomerular volume typical of diabetes; furthermore, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased and the glomerular cell density was better preserved. Glycoxidative markers in the skin turned out to be good indicators of the glomerular condition. The findings that emerged from our study support the hypothesis that glomerular damage in diabetes can be prevented or at least attenuated by supplementation with specific antioxidants. Treatment with oxerutin and combined treatment with NAC plus taurine gave the most encouraging results, whereas the results of taurine-only treatment were either negligible or negative and therefore suggest caution in the use of this molecule in single-drug treatment courses. (+info)
(4/27) The new cardioprotector Monohydroxyethylrutoside protects against doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects in vitro.
Besides its cardiotoxic effect, doxorubicin also elicits inflammatory effects in vivo. 7-Monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER) has recently been used as a protector against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo. It is not known yet whether monoHER can also protect against doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was (1) to illustrate the inflammatory effects of doxorubicin in vitro and (2) to evaluate a possibly protective effect of monoHER. In order to demonstrate the inflammatory effects of doxorubicin and the possible protection of monoHER, proliferating human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with different concentrations of doxorubicin ranging from 12.5 to 600 nM with(out) 200 micro M monoHER. Resting (confluent) HUVECs were incubated with (0.5-25 micro M) doxorubicin with(out) monoHER (0.2-1.2 mM) and the viability of endothelial cells and their propensity to adhere to neutrophils were measured 24 h after treatment. The localisation of adhered neutrophils was determined with immunofluorescence microscopy. To further characterise the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced neutrophil adhesion, the expression of the HUVECs surface adhesion molecules was determined after doxorubicin treatment. Doxorubicin decreased the viability and proliferation capacity of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The proliferating HUVECs were much more sensitive to doxorubicin (IC(50)=60.0+/-20.8 nM) than resting cells (LC(50)=4.0+/-0.3 micro M). Doxorubicin also increased the adhesion of neutrophils reaching a plateau value at a doxorubicin concentration of > or =0.4 micro M (P=0.0113). The induced neutrophil adhesion was accompanied by overexpression of VCAM and E-selectin but not ICAM. Although monoHER did not reverse the effect of doxorubicin on the proliferation of endothelial cells, it significantly protected resting HUVECs against the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (< or =25 micro M, P<0.0015). In addition, monoHER completely protected against the stimulatory effect of doxorubicin on neutrophil adhesion, and inhibited the doxorubin-induced expression of VCAM and E-selectin on the surface of treated HUVECs. This study illustrates that monoHER, which protects against doxorubicin's cardiotoxic effect, can also protect against doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects. These data prompt further investigation about the possible link between doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects and its cardiotoxicity in vivo. (+info)
(5/27) A comparative study between catalase gene therapy and the cardioprotector monohydroxyethylrutoside (MonoHER) in protecting against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro.
Cardiotoxicity is the main dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin in the clinic. Being a free radical producer, doxorubicin affects the heart specifically because of its low antioxidant capacity. Among those antioxidants, catalase is present in very low levels in the heart compared to other organs. Since catalase is an essential enzyme in detoxifying hydrogen peroxide, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of catalase as delivered by an adenovirus vector against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NeRCaMs). 7-Monohydroxyethylrutoside (MonoHER), a potent cardioprotector currently under clinical investigations, was included in the study as a reference. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were infected with different multiplicity of infections (MOIs) of adenovirus encoding catalase (AdCat). A control infection with an adenovirus vector encoding a nonrelated protein was included. The activity and content of catalase in infected cells were determined during 3 days postinfection. One group of NeRCaMs was infected with AdCat before treatment with doxorubicin (0-50 microM). The second and third group were treated with doxorubicin (0-50 microM) with and without 1 mM monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), respectively. The LDH release and viability of treated cells were measured 24 and 48 h after doxorubicin treatment. The beating rate was followed in three other groups of cells receiving the same treatments within 3 days after doxorubicin (0-100 microM) treatment. Catalase activity increased in AdCat-infected cells, with different MOIs, starting from the second day after infection as compared to the mock-infected cells (P<0.03). At the third day of infection, an MOI of more than 50 caused cytopathic effects, which hampered the use of higher viral titres. With an MOI of 50, catalase activity increased 3.5-fold in AdCat-infected cells 3 days postinfection (P=0.021) compared to mock-infected cells. The beating rate and survival of NeRCaMs decreased in a concentration and time-dependent manner after doxorubicin treatment (P<0.0005). This cytotoxicity was associated with an increase in the LDH release from the treated cells (P<0.0005). The cells stopped beating 24 h after treatment with >50 microM doxorubicin. A 3.5-fold increase in the activity of catalase did not protect NeRCaMs against any of the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on NeRCaMs. In contrast, monoHER (1 mM) significantly protected NeRCaMs against the lethal effects of doxorubicin on the survival, LDH release and the beating rate of NeRCaMs (P<0.004) during 48 h after doxorubicin treatment. This protection resulted in a prolongation of the beating of doxorubicin-treated cells after the end of the experiment (i.e. >72 h). The present study (1) illustrates that the cytotoxicity of high MOI of AdCat (>50) limited the possibility to increase catalase activity more than 3.5-fold, which was not enough to protect infected NeRCaMs against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and (2) confirms the efficacy of monoHER as a cardioprotector. Thus, the use of monoHER proves more suitable for the prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity than catalase gene transfer employing adenovirus vectors. (+info)
(6/27) Treatment of the leg ulcers by skin grafting.
The ulcers, located below the knees and remaining for 6 weeks and more, are called trophic leg ulcers. The leg ulcers of different etiology disable 0.8-1% of total Earth population. It was found that blood vessel problems in legs account for more than 80% of ulcers; even 65% from these are caused by venous diseases. In Lithuania about 8000 patients suffer from venous trophic ulcers. Regardless of modern methods the treatment of leg ulcers remains an extremely expensive process. The treatment cost of trophic ulcers is the highest of all surgical wounds and also requires a lot of personal investments. In order to assess the efficiency of autodermoplastics in the treatment of large venous ulcers in legs a prospective study was carried out of 111 patients who were treated in the Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital from January 2001 to January 2004. The data was analyzed exceptionally of the operated 54 patients with venous origin ulcers open for more 6 months or exceeding 50 cm2. The above-mentioned patients were prepared for surgery by dressing the wounds with hydrocolloid Granuflex bandages and were operated by transplanting a 0.2-0.3 mm thick skin graft. The results were estimated by the surgeon during the dressings after the operation. The graft was taken in 35 (64.81%) cases; in 19 (35.19%) cases the graft was partially not taken and there were no cases when it was not taken at all. We came to the conclusions that skin graft transplantation is efficient in treatment of trophic venous leg ulcers larger than 50 cm2 and cures the trophic leg ulcers of vein origin completely in 2-3 weeks for 64.81% patients. (+info)
(7/27) Radioprotection of normal tissues in tumor-bearing mice by troxerutin.
The flavanoid derivative troxerutin, used clinically for treating venous disorders, protected biomembranes and cellular DNA against the deleterious effects of gamma-radiation. The peroxidation of lipids (measured as thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, or TBARS) in rat liver microsomal and mitochondrial membranes resulting from gamma-irradiation up to doses of 500 Gy in vitro was prevented by 0.2 mM troxerutin. The administration of troxerutin (175 mg/kg body weight) to tumor-bearing mice by ip one hour prior to 4 Gy whole-body gamma-irradiation significantly decreased the radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids in tissues such as liver and spleen, but there was no reduction of lipid peroxidation in tumor. The effect of troxerutin in gamma-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in different tissues of tumor-bearing mice was studied by comet assay. The administration of troxerutin to tumor-bearing animals protected cellular DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks. This was evidenced from decreases in comet tail length, tail moment, and percent of DNA in the tails in cells of normal tissues such as blood leukocytes and bone marrow, and these parameters were not altered in cells of fibrosarcoma tumor. The results revealed that troxerutin could preferentially protect normal tissues against radiation-induced damages in tumor-bearing animals. (+info)
(8/27) In vivo reduction of erythrocyte oxidant stress in a murine model of beta-thalassemia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oxidant damage is an important contributor to the premature destruction of erythrocytes and anemia in thalassemias. To assess the extent of oxidant damage of circulating erythrocytes and the effects of antioxidant therapy on erythrocyte characteristics and anemia, we used a mouse model of human beta-thalassemia intermedia (b1/b2 deletion). DESIGN AND METHODS: Several parameters indicative of oxidant damage were measured at baseline and following administration of the semi-synthetic flavonoid antioxidant, 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), to beta-thalassemic mice at a dose of either 500 mg/kg i.p. once a day (n=6) or 250 mg/kg i.p. twice a day (n=6) for 21 days. RESULTS: Significant erythrocyte oxidant damage at baseline was indicated by: (i) dehydration, reduced cell K content, and up-regulated K-Cl co-transport; (ii) marked membrane externalization of phosphatidylserine; (iii) reduced plasma and membrane content of vitamin E; and (iv) increased membrane bound IgG. MonoHER treatment increased erythrocyte K content, and markedly improved all cellular indicators of oxidant stress and of lipid membrane peroxidation. While anemia did not improve, monoHER therapy reduced reticulocyte counts, improved survival of a fraction of red cells, and reduced ineffective erythropoiesis with decreased total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and plasma iron. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant therapy reverses several indicators of oxidant damage in vivo. These promising antioxidant effects of monoHER should be investigated further. (+info)