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(1/1191) IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge.

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

(2/1191) Amplification of the six major human herpesviruses from cerebrospinal fluid by a single PCR.

We used a novel type of primer system, a system that uses stair primers, in which the primer sequences are based on consensus sequences in the DNA polymerase gene of herpesvirus to detect herpesviruses by PCR. A single PCR in a single tube detected the six major herpesviruses that infect the central nervous system: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). We used the technique to analyze 142 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples that had been stored at -80 degrees C and compared the results with those obtained previously for the same samples by standard, targeted PCR. Four hundred one targeted PCR tests had been run with the 142 samples to detect HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, and VZV; screening for EBV and HHV-6 was not prescribed when the samples were initially taken. Eighteen CSF samples tested positive by classic targeted PCR. The herpesvirus consensus PCR detected herpesviruses in 37 samples, including 3 samples with coinfections and 17 viral isolates which were not targeted. Two samples identified as infected by the targeted PCR tested negative by the consensus PCR, and eight samples that tested positive by the consensus PCR were negative by the targeted PCR. One hundred three samples scored negative by both the targeted and the consensus PCRs. This preliminary study demonstrates the value of testing for six different herpesviruses simultaneously by a sensitive and straightforward technique rather than screening only for those viruses that are causing infections as suggested by clinical signs.  (+info)

(3/1191) Herpes simplex virus entry is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins.

The initial step in herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry is binding of virion glycoprotein (g)C and/or gB to cell surface heparan sulfate. After this initial attachment, gD interacts with cell surface receptor or receptors, and the virion envelope fuses with the cell membrane. Fusion requires viral glycoproteins gB, gD, gL, and gH, but the cellular factors that participate in or the pathways activated by viral entry have not been defined. To determine whether signal transduction pathways are triggered by viral-cell fusion, we examined the association of viral entry with tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, we found that at least three cytoplasmic host cell proteins, designated p80, p104, and p140, become tyrosine phosphorylated within 5-10 min after exposure to HSV-1 or HSV-2. However, no phosphorylation is detected when cells are exposed to a mutant virus deleted in gL that binds but fails to penetrate. Phosphorylation is restored when the gL-deletion virus is grown on a complementing cell line. Viral entry and the phosphorylation of p80, p104, and p140 are inhibited when cells are infected with virus in the presence of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Taken together, these studies suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of host cellular proteins is triggered by viral entry.  (+info)

(4/1191) Association of major histocompatibility complex determinants with the development of symptomatic and asymptomatic genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.

The clinical spectrum of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, ranging from asymptomatic to frequently distressing outbreaks, suggests that there may be immunologic determinants of disease severity that are associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression. A controlled, prospective study identified several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigens whose frequencies are associated with HSV-2 infection or with frequent symptomatic genital recurrences. Previous studies were hampered by the inability to serologically identify patients with asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Clinical evaluation and Western blot assay were used to identify 3 subject cohorts: 1 with no prior HSV infections, 1 with HSV-2 antibodies but no recognized symptoms, and 1 with HSV-2 antibodies and frequent genital recurrences. Statistical comparisons of HLA frequencies among these cohorts showed associations of HLA-B27 and -Cw2 with symptomatic disease. Also, HLA-Cw4 was significantly associated with HSV-2 infection. These associations indicate that immunologic factors linked to the MHC influence the risk of HSV-2 infection and disease expression.  (+info)

(5/1191) Control of STDs--the role of prophylactic vaccines against herpes simplex virus.

OBJECTIVES: To summarise the current status of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development and provide a discussion of the potential benefits and limitations of genital herpes vaccines. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Genital herpes simplex virus infection has a complex pathogenesis that has contributed to it becoming a serious worldwide problem. In an attempt to control the problem five different types of genital herpes vaccines have been developed. These include inactivated virion derived vaccines, adjuvanted subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines, replication limited live viral vaccines, genetically attenuated live viral vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. While available commercially in some parts of the world, inactivated virion derived vaccines have not been proved effective. Of the others, adjuvanted subunit vaccines, replication limited live viral vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines are currently in clinical trials and vectored vaccines and genetically attenuated live viral vaccines are in preclinical development. CONCLUSION: With regard to HSV vaccines in general, it is reasonable to expect that the newer vaccines may protect the individual from developing symptomatic genital herpes but may not protect against asymptomatic viral infection. With widespread use HSV vaccines might help to prevent the spread of genital herpes.  (+info)

(6/1191) The murine homolog (Mph) of human herpesvirus entry protein B (HveB) mediates entry of pseudorabies virus but not herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

A mouse member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, originally designated the murine poliovirus receptor homolog (Mph), was found to be a receptor for the porcine alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV). This mouse protein, designated here murine herpesvirus entry protein B (mHveB), is most similar to one of three related human alphaherpesvirus receptors, the one designated HveB and also known as poliovirus receptor-related protein 2. Hamster cells resistant to PRV entry became susceptible upon expression of a cDNA encoding mHveB. Anti-mHveB antibody and a soluble protein composed of the mHveB ectodomain inhibited mHveB-dependent PRV entry. Expression of mHveB mRNA was detected in a variety of mouse cell lines, but anti-mHveB antibody inhibited PRV infection in only a subset of these cell lines, indicating that mHveB is the principal mediator of PRV entry into some mouse cell types but not others. Coexpression of mHveB with PRV gD, but not herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gD, inhibited entry activity, suggesting that PRV gD may interact directly with mHveB as a ligand that can cause interference. By analogy with HSV-1, envelope-associated PRV gD probably also interacts directly with mHveB during viral entry.  (+info)

(7/1191) Evaluation of three glycoprotein G2-based enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in human sera.

Three new glycoprotein G-based enzyme immunoassays (ETI-HSVK-G 2, Sorin Diagnostics Biomedica [assay A]; HSV Type 2 Specific IgG ELISA, Gull Laboratories, Inc. [assay B]; Cobas Core HSV-2 IgG EIA, Roche [assay C]) for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2)-specific antibodies were evaluated. By testing sera from 25 individuals with culture-proven HSV-2 infection, the assays showed a sensitivity of 96%. The specificities, evaluated with sera from 70 HSV antibody-negative children, 75 HSV antibody-positive children, and 69 HSV antibody-negative adults, were 100% for assay A, 96.2% for assay B, and 97.8% for assay C, respectively. Discrepant results by any of the three assays, i.e., reactivity of a specimen in only one or two assays, occurred with similar frequencies for HSV-seronegative individuals as well as HSV-seropositive children and adults. For sera with discrepant results, the positive reactivity was mostly low. Thus, for determination of the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies, only concordantly positive results were considered. On the basis of the results obtained with sera from 41 adults with culture-proven HSV-1 infection and from 173 HSV-antibody-positive pregnant women, the HSV-2 seroprevalence was 9. 8%. The results show that the new glycoprotein G2-based enzyme immunoassays are useful tools for the detection of type-specific HSV-2 antibodies. However, if only one assay is performed, careful interpretation of the results is indicated, especially if the exhibited reactivity is low, and for determination of the definitive HSV-2 serostatus, confirmatory assays may still be necessary.  (+info)

(8/1191) Laboratory diagnosis of common viral infections of the central nervous system by using a single multiplex PCR screening assay.

A multiplex PCR assay that detects the four commonest causes of viral meningitis and encephalitis in the United Kingdom (herpes simplex virus [HSV] type 1 [HSV-1], HSV type 2 [HSV-2], varicella-zoster virus [VZV], and enteroviruses) was developed, and its sensitivity was compared with those of similar assays described previously for this application. Compared to the previous assays, this single multiplex PCR assay had higher molecular sensitivities for the detection for each of the viruses and improved utility for routine use in a diagnostic laboratory. The assay was used to test a series of 1,683 consecutive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples between June 1997 and March 1998 inclusively. Viral nucleic acid was detected in 138 (8.2%) of the CSF samples, including enteroviruses in 51 samples, HSV-2 in 33 samples, VZV in 28 samples, and HSV-1 in 25 samples. Compared to the accepted relative incidence of viral etiologies, aseptic meningitis due to HSV-2 infection was high, and in adult female patients with symptoms of aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 was the virus most commonly detected in the CSF.  (+info)