(1/2133) Effect of growth hormone treatment on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Genentech Collaborative Group.
BACKGROUND: Short-term administration of growth hormone to children with idiopathic short stature results in increases in growth rate and standard-deviation scores for height. However, the effect of long-term growth hormone therapy on adult height in these children is unknown. METHODS: We studied 121 children with idiopathic short stature, all of whom had an initial height below the third percentile, low growth rates, and maximal stimulated serum concentrations of growth hormone of at least 10 microg per liter. The children were treated with growth hormone (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight per week) for 2 to 10 years. Eighty of these children have reached adult height, with a bone age of at least 16 years in the boys and at least 14 years in the girls, and pubertal stage 4 or 5. The difference between the predicted adult height before treatment and achieved adult height was compared with the corresponding difference in three untreated normal or short-statured control groups. RESULTS: In the 80 children who have reached adult height, growth hormone treatment increased the mean standard-deviation score for height (number of standard deviations from the mean height for chronologic age) from -2.7 to -1.4. The mean (+/-SD) difference between predicted adult height before treatment and achieved adult height was +5.0+/-5.1 cm for boys and +5.9+/-5.2 cm for girls. The difference between predicted and achieved adult height among treated boys was 9.2 cm greater than the corresponding difference among untreated boys with initial standard-deviation scores of less than -2, and the difference among treated girls was 5.7 cm greater than the difference among untreated girls. CONCLUSION: Long-term administration of growth hormone to children with idiopathic short stature can increase adult height to a level above the predicted adult height and above the adult height of untreated historical control children. (+info)
(2/2133) Oxidized derivatives of 7-dehydrocholesterol induce growth retardation in cultured rat embryos: a model for antenatal growth retardation in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
7-Dehydrocholesterol accumulates in fetuses affected by the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome as a result of a deficit in the ultimate step of cholesterol synthesis catalyzed by Delta7 reductase. Rat embryos explanted at gestation day 10 and cultured for 48 h in the presence of the Delta7 reductase inhibitor AY 9944 were used as a model to discriminate between the beneficial effect of supplementation with cholesterol and the deleterious effect of supplementation with 7-dehydrocholesterol. Cholesterol supplementation in the form of mixed cholesterol/lecithin liposomes added to serum serving as the culture medium restores the growth of embryos which is markedly decreased in the presence of the inhibitor. 7-Dehydrocholesterol under identical conditions does not restore growth and impairs the beneficial effect of cholesterol added simultaneously. UV-photooxidation of 7-dehydrocholesterol-supplemented culture medium enhances its embryotoxicity, which suggests uptake by the embryo of toxic by-products formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol. By contrast photooxidation of cholesterol-supplemented culture medium does not induce embryotoxicity. alpha-Tocopherol reduces the toxicity of photooxidized 7-dehydrocholesterol supplementing the culture medium. We conclude that 7-dehydrocholesterol does not fulfill the cholesterol requirement of the developing embryos and exerts an additional embryotoxic effect probably via oxidized by-products. This could explain the antenatal growth retardation of SLOS by a blockage of the maternal compensatory cholesterol influx. (+info)
(3/2133) Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project.
BACKGROUND: Excessive decreases in fat intake in young children have been linked with low intakes of energy and nutrients and possible growth failure. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated nutrient intakes and growth of healthy children with different fat intakes during the first 5 y of life. DESIGN: In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP), 7-mo-old children were randomly assigned to an intervention aimed at reduced consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol (n = 540) or to a control group (n = 522). This analysis comprises data for children for whom > or = 6 of 8 possible 3-4-d food records were available (n = 730; 353 females). Children were divided according to fat intake pattern (percentage of energy) between the ages of 13 mo and 5 y into groups with continuously high fat intake (5% of children), increasing fat intake (5%), continuously low fat intake (5%), decreasing fat intake (5%), and average fat intake (80%). Children's energy and nutrient intakes and growth were then compared by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Fat intake at 13 mo of age was particularly low (21% of energy) in the increasing fat intake group and in the continuously low fat intake group (22% of energy at 13 mo; 26% of energy at 5 y). Growth of children in all 5 fat intake groups, however, was not significantly different throughout the study period. Intakes of vitamins and minerals, except of vitamin D, met recommended dietary allowances in all fat intake groups. CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes and growth were not significantly different in children whose fat intake patterns differed between 13 mo and 5 y of age. (+info)
(4/2133) Comparison of growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis between the United States and Canada.
BACKGROUND: Differences in growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) between the United States and Canada were reported in the 1980s based on analysis of data from 2 regional CF centers. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the current growth status of the entire CF population in the United States and Canada in view of recent advances in the treatment of CF. DESIGN: Growth data from the 1992-1994 CF Patient Registries were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean height and weight were at approximately the 30th percentile for children with CF in the United States. Mean height and weight were 4-5 percentiles higher in children with CF in Canada than in those in the United States (P < 0.01), but percentages of ideal weight (104%) were similar in both populations. In adults with CF, mean height was similar at the 37th percentile; however, weight (26th compared with the 21st percentiles) and percentage of ideal weight (93% compared with 90%) were significantly higher in Canada than in the United States. Differences related to sex and age were similar in both countries for all indexes, which showed a high prevalence of underweight in infants and in older patients, but little sex discrepancy. CONCLUSION: We observed substantially smaller differences in the growth indexes of CF patients between the United States and Canada compared with results from the 1980s. These findings reflect significant improvements in the nutritional status of US patients in recent years. However, caution is required in the direct comparison of mean percentiles from reports using different growth standards because there are systematic differences in growth standards, which affect, in particular, the comparison of growth in males and females. (+info)
(5/2133) The relationship of family size and spacing to the growth of preschool Mayan children in Guatemala.
The height of preschool Mayan children is analyzed with respect to family size and the spacing of their siblings, controlling for parental heights and weights. Data on 643 cases were abstracted from the records of two previous longitudinal studies on the health of children under age five years living in the highlands of Guatemala. Height at age three years is estimated from the linear regression equations fitted for each child to measurements of height repeated at three-month intervals from ages one to four years. Family size is expressed in terms of birth rank, live siblings, and the number of dependent and independent family members. Family spacing is measured as birth intervals, i.e., the number of months between the birth of the index child and his previous and subsequent siblings. Most previous studies have reported that height decreases as family size increases. This study shows that Mayan children from both small and large families are taller than those from middle-sized families. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that children in large families are relatively tall because their early-born siblings contribute to the family fortunes. Birth intervals are positively correlated with height. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for family planning. (+info)
(6/2133) A model of whole-body protein turnover based on leucine kinetics in rodents.
The measurement of fractional synthesis rate is based on the following assumptions: amino acids for protein synthesis are supplied by an intracellular pool; amino acids from protein degradation are not recycled preferentially to protein synthesis; and proteins turn over at a homogeneous rate. To test these assumptions, a mechanistic, theoretical model of protein turnover for a nongrowing 26-g mouse was developed on the basis of data from the literature. The model consisted of three protein pools turning over at fast (102 micromol Leu, t1/2= 11.5 h), medium (212 micromol Leu, t1/2 = 16.6 h) or slow (536 micromol Leu, t1/2 = 71.5 h) rates and extracellular (1.69 micromol Leu), leucyl-tRNA (0.0226 micromol Leu) and intracellular (5.72 micromol Leu) amino acid pools that exchanged amino acids. The flow of amino acids from the protein pools to the leucyl-tRNA pool determined the amount of recycling. The flow of amino acids from the extracellular pool to aminoacyl tRNA determined the amount of channeling. Two flooding dose data sets were used to evaluate specific radioactivity changes predicted by the model. Predictions of specific radioactivities using flooding dose, pulse dose or continuous infusion methods indicated that the model can be a useful tool in estimating the rates of channeling and recycling. However, it was found that use of data from flooding dose experiments might cause inaccurate predictions of certain fluxes. (+info)
(7/2133) Growth in Sotos syndrome.
Although there are several reports on infant and childhood growth in patients with Sotos syndrome, there is little information on the final height achieved and puberty. Growth data on 40 patients (20 female and 20 male) aged 2-31 years were collected. These showed that patients with Sotos syndrome are excessively tall at birth, during infancy, and during childhood. Disproportionately long limbs constitute much of the increase in stature. However, the combination of advanced bone age and early onset of menarche led to a mean (SD) final height of 172.9 (5.7) cm in women. This is within the normal range for the population. Most of the men also attained a final height (mean, 184.3 cm; SD, 6.0) within the normal range, although exceptions were more likely in men than in women. Therefore, these results show that most patients with Sotos syndrome do not require intervention to limit their adult height. (+info)
(8/2133) Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body size, blood pressure, fasting insulin, and lipids in young adults. The Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study.
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is of concern during early development because adult obesity and its cardiovascular consequences appear to have their origins during childhood. Insulin resistance is known to be related to obesity. Thus, weight gain beginning in childhood may influence the development of insulin-induced cardiovascular risk during adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We monitored 679 individuals from 7.7+/-0.1 years of age with repeated measures of height, weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) until 23.6+/-0.2 years of age, when blood samples were obtained for measurements of insulin and lipids. Initial childhood weight, body mass index (BMI), and height were significantly correlated with young adult weight, BMI, and height and with fasting insulin, lipids, and SBP. The increases in weight and BMI but not height during childhood were significantly related to the young adult levels of insulin, lipids, and SBP. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that weight gain in excess of normal growth during childhood is a determinant of adult cardiovascular risk. The finding in multiple linear regression analysis that weight gain during childhood rather than the childhood weight at 7.7 years of age is significantly related to young adult risk factors suggests that a reduction in weight gain could reduce subsequent levels of cardiovascular risk. (+info)