The muscarinic M(2) receptor contains an orthosteric and an allosteric site. Binding of an allosteric agent may induce a shift alpha of the equilibrium dissociation constant K(D) of a radioligand for the orthosteric site. According to the cooperativity model, the K(A) of alloster binding is expected to be shifted to an identical extent depending on whether the orthosteric site is occupied by the orthoster or not. Here, the novel radioalloster [(3)H]dimethyl-W84 (N,N'-bis[3-(1,3-dihydro-1, 3-dioxo-4-methyl-2H-isoindol-2-yl)propyl]-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1, 6-hexanediaminium diiodide) was applied to directly measure the K(A) shift induced for the prototype allosteric modulator gallamine by binding of N-methylscopolamine (NMS) to the orthosteric site of porcine heart M(2) receptors (4 mM Na(2)HPO(4), 1 mM KH(2)PO(4), pH 7.4; 23 degrees C; data are means +/- S.E.). First, in the common way, the concentration-dependent inhibition by gallamine of [(3)H]NMS equilibrium binding was measured and analyzed using the cooperativity model, which yielded for the affinity of gallamine binding at free receptors a pK(A)= 8.35 +/- 0.09 and a cooperativity factor alpha = 46 (n = 5). The dissociation constant for gallamine binding at NMS-occupied receptors was predicted as p(alpha. K(A)) = 6.69. Labeling of the allosteric site by [(3)H]dimethyl-W84 allowed the measure of competitive displacement curves for gallamine. The K(i) for gallamine at free receptors amounted to pK(i,-NMS) = 8.27 +/- 0.39 (n = 5), which is in line with the prediction of the cooperativtiy model. In the presence of 1 microM NMS, to occupy the orthosteric site, gallamine displaced [(3)H]dimethyl-W84 with pK(i, +NMS) = 6.60 +/- 0.19 (n = 3). Thus, the NMS-induced pK(i) shift amounted to 47, which matches the predicted value of alpha = 46. These results validate the cooperativity model. (+info)
(2/124) Effects of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents on norepinephrine release from human atrial tissue obtained during cardiac surgery.
We have studied the effect of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, at concentrations present in serum during anaesthesia, on release of [3H]-norepinephrine ([3H]NE) from superfused atrial appendage obtained during cardiac surgery from 48 patients. Three of the neuromuscular blocking agents (pancuronium, gallamine and rocuronium), which are known to cause an increase in heart rate during anaesthesia, increased stimulation-evoked release of [3H]NE. In contrast, (+)tubocurarine and pipecuronium, neuromuscular blocking agents that do not cause tachycardia, did not affect release of NE. Org 9487 significantly enhanced release while SZ1677 was ineffective, even at concentrations higher than those expected after administration of a 2 x ED95 dose. Atropine enhanced release. These data suggest that the axon terminals of sympathetic nerves in human heart have muscarinic heteroreceptors whose activation by acetylcholine (ACh) released from the vagal nerve reduces release of NE. This action contributes to lowering of heart rate. Therefore, any neuromuscular blocking agent with antimuscarinic actions and capable of increasing the release of NE may produce tachycardia. (+info)
(3/124) Site-directed mutagenesis reveals two epitopes involved in the subtype selectivity of the allosteric interactions of gallamine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
Gallamine allosterically modulates the binding of classical muscarinic ligands with a potency order of M(2) > M(1),M(4) > M(3), M(5). We have suggested previously that the M(2)/M(5) and M(2)/M(3) selectivities are attributable to an epitope in the sixth transmembrane region or third outer loop (o3) region of the receptor. In this study, analysis of numerous point mutations in this region of the M(5) receptor found that a mutation of V --> N resulted in an increased affinity toward gallamine, suggesting that the asparagine residue at M(2)(419) is responsible for gallamine's M(2)/M(5) selectivity. Mutations in the other subtypes indicated that the acidic residues found at this position in M(1) and M(4) are associated with slightly higher affinity toward gallamine, whereas the valine and lysine residues of M(5) and M(3), respectively, are associated with significantly lower affinity. In the o2 region, replacement of an acidic sequence of M(2) (EDGE) by the corresponding neutral sequence of M(1) (LAGQ) reduced the affinity toward gallamine, as reported previously by others; the converse substitution of the acidic sequence into M(1) significantly increased affinity for gallamine. Substitution of the M(1) sequence into this region of M(5) markedly reduced affinity toward gallamine, whereas substitution into M(4) had no effect. All of the above mutations are consistent with gallamine binding with a similar orientation at each subtype, such that it interacts with acidic residues in the o2 region of M(3) and M(5) and with acidic residues in the o3 region of M(1) and M(4); gallamine appears to interact with both regions of the M(2) subtype. (+info)
(4/124) Interaction between quaternary ammonium ions in the pore of potassium channels. Evidence against an electrostatic repulsion mechanism.
We have examined the interaction between internal and external ions in the pore of potassium channels. We found that external tetraethylammonium was able to antagonize block of Shaker channels by internal TEA when the external and internal solutions contained K(+) ions. This antagonism was absent in solutions with Rb(+) as the only permeant ion. An externally applied trivalent TEA analogue, gallamine, was less effective than the monovalent TEA in inhibiting block by internal TEA. In addition, block by external TEA was little affected by changes in the concentration of internal K(+) ions, but was increased by the presence of internal Na(+) ions in the pore. These results demonstrate that external and internal TEA ions, likely located at opposite ends of the pore selectivity filter, do not experience a mutual electrostatic repulsion. We found that these results can be simulated by a simple 4-barrier-3-site permeation model in which ions compete for available binding sites without long-range electrostatic interactions. (+info)
(5/124) Inhibition of neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptor function in the lungs by extracellular nitric oxide.
1. These experiments were carried out to test whether neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptor function in the lungs is affected by nitric oxide (NO) and whether the source of the NO is epithelial or neuronal. 2. In pathogen free, anaesthetized guinea-pigs, the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine inhibited vagally induced bronchoconstriction demonstrating functional neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptors. In the presence of the NO donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), pilocarpine no longer inhibited vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In contrast, inhibiting endogenous NO with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NMMA) did not affect the ability of pilocarpine to decrease vagally induced bronchoconstriction. 3. In isolated tracheas, pilocarpine inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation demonstrating that neuronal M(2) muscarinic receptors function in vitro. As in the anaesthetized guinea-pigs, SIN-1 shifted the pilocarpine dose response curve to the right, demonstrating decreased neuronal M(2) receptor function. However, in vitro, L-NMMA shifted the pilocarpine dose response curve to the left, demonstrating that endogenous NO was inhibiting the ability of the M(2) receptors to decrease acetylcholine (ACh) release. 4. Both haemoglobin (Hb), which scavenges NO, and epithelial removal also shifted the pilocarpine dose response curve to the left, demonstrating that the NO inhibiting neuronal M(2) receptor function was extracellular and probably of epithelial origin. 5. In conclusion, extracellular NO appears to inhibit the ability of the M(2) receptors to decrease ACh release from the parasympathetic nerves in the lungs in vivo and in vitro in pathogen free guinea-pigs. However, while the neuronal M(2) receptors will respond to NO (from SIN-1) in vivo, there does not appear to be an endogenous source of NO since L-NMMA had no effect in vivo. (+info)
(6/124) The sensitivity of paramedian reticular neurones to acetylcholine.
1. Of paramedian reticular neurones a significantly higher proportion of those antidromically activated from the cerebellum than of those orthodromically activated from this source were excited by acetylcholine. 2. Receptors for acetylcholine were of the muscarinic type. 3. No differences were found in the proportions of cholinoceptive and non-cholinoceptive cells responding to stimulation of cranial and limb nerves or to changes in blood pressure either spontaneous or induced. 4. Either a cholinergic pathway to paramedian reticular cells projecting to the cerebellum was not activated in these experiments or the receptors for acetylcholine are not located at synapses. An association between muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase may be present with cells of this area. (+info)
(7/124) Muscarinic activation of inwardly rectifying K(+) conductance reduces EPSPs in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.
1. To determine how acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the somatodendritic processing of EPSPs, we performed whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices and examined the effect of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol (CCh), on alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) EPSPs, miniature EPSPs, and EPSP-like waveforms evoked by brief dendritic glutamate pulses (glutamate-evoked postsynaptic potentials, GPSPs). 2. Although CCh is known to enhance the intrinsic excitability of the neuron in several ways, activation of atropine-sensitive (muscarinic) receptors on the apical dendrite or the soma of CA1 pyramidal cells consistently reduced the amplitude of EPSPs and GPSPs. 3. Cholinergic inhibition of evoked and simulated EPSP waveforms displayed considerable voltage dependence, with the amplitude of the postsynaptic potentials progressively declining with membrane hyperpolarization indicating the involvement of an inwardly rectifying current. 4. Extracellular Ba(2+) (200 microM) and tertiapin (30 nM), a novel and selective blocker of G protein-activated, inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, completely blocked the effect of CCh on GPSP amplitude. 5. Muscarinic reduction of GPSPs was not sensitive to the M1 receptor-preferring antagonist, pirenzepine, but was suppressed by the M2 receptor-preferring antagonist, methoctramine, and by the allosteric M2 receptor antagonist, gallamine. 6. In voltage-clamp recordings, CCh induced an ion current displaying inward rectification in the hyperpolarizing direction, which was identified as a GIRK current based on its sensitivity to low Ba(2+) and tertiapin. Its pharmacological profile paralleled that of the cholinergic GPSP reduction. 7. We link the observed reduction of postsynaptic potentials to the cholinergic activation of a GIRK conductance, which serves to partially shunt excitatory synaptic input. (+info)
(8/124) Changes of cooperativity between N-methylscopolamine and allosteric modulators alcuronium and gallamine induced by mutations of external loops of muscarinic M(3) receptors.
To clarify the involvement of specific domains of muscarinic receptors in the action of allosteric modulators, muscarinic M(3) receptors (on which allosteric interactions are weak) were genetically modified to become more similar to M(2) receptors (on which allosteric interactions are strong) and were expressed in COS-7 cells. Affinity for allosteric modulator gallamine was enhanced 25- to 50-fold by modifications of the third external loop (o3) and the negative effect of gallamine on the affinity for classical antagonist N-[(3)H]methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) was augmented. Affinity for alcuronium became 3-fold higher after the o3 loop of M(3) receptors was made identical with the o3 loop of M(2) receptors, and alcuronium acquired positive influence on the affinity for [(3)H]NMS. This is the first instance of inducing positive cooperativity on muscarinic receptors by genetic manipulation. Transferring whole o2 loop from M(2) to M(3) receptors substantially enhanced affinities for gallamine and alcuronium without augmenting their negative action on [(3)H]NMS binding. In contrast, effects of simply adding two negative charges into the o2 loop of M(3) receptors were small. Removal of Arg from o1 loop abolished the negative effect of gallamine but not of alcuronium on [(3)H]NMS binding at equilibrium. Data point to an important role of o3 loop in the mechanism of the positive and negative cooperativity between [(3)H]NMS and alcuronium and gallamine, respectively, and in the binding of both modulators to M(2) receptors and reveal independence between mutation-induced changes in the affinity for a modulator and in the magnitude and direction of the allosteric effect of the modulator. (+info)