A membrane-associated galactosyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei was purified 34000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-hexanolamine-Sepharosetrade mark. Using SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions, the isolated enzyme ran as a relatively broad band with apparent molecular masses of 53 kDa and 52 kDa, indicative of glycosylation and the existence of two isoforms. N-Glycosylation of the enzyme was subsequently confirmed using Western blotting and either specific binding of concanavalin A or peptide-N4-(N-acetylglucosaminyl)asparagine amidase digestion. The de-N-glycosylated enzyme ran with apparent molecular masses of 51 kDa and 50 kDa, indicative of a single N-glycosylation site. The galactosyltransferase exhibited a pH optimum at 7.2 and had a pronounced requirement for Mn2+ ions (KM=2.5 mM) for its action. The transferase activity was independent of the concentration of Triton X-100. The enzyme was capable of transferring galactose from UDP-galactose to a variety of galactose-based acceptors in alpha-glycosidic linkages. The apparent KM values for UDP-galactose and for the preferred acceptor substrate N-acetyl-lactosamine are 46 microM and 4.5 mM respectively. From these results we would like to suggest that the galactosyltransferase functions in the processing of terminal N-acetyl-lactosamine structures of trypanosomal glycoproteins. (+info)
(2/1005) Galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activities in luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and in the rete testis fluid of some mammals.
Galactosyltransferase activity was measured in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis of mice, rats, rabbits, rams and boars, and in the rete testis fluid of rams and boars. The activities of nucleotide pyrophosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, which compete with galactosyltransferase for substrate, were also determined. In these species, galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was similar when the inhibitory effect of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase was minimized by assay conditions. However, under assay conditions that did not minimize the effect of these enzymes, the galactosyltransferase activities of these species were very different and were inversely correlated with the activities of pyrophosphatase and phosphatase. The ratio of galactosyltransferase activity to pyrophosphatase and phosphatase activity was much higher in the rete testis fluid than in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis in both rams and boars. In rams, galactosyltransferase in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis was more heat resistant than that in serum. These results suggest that there is a species difference in the availability of galactosyltransferase activity in the luminal plasma of the cauda epididymidis and that in some species, galactosyltransferase in the luminal fluid is unlikely to have any function. The results are also discussed with respect to the possible function of galactosyltransferase, pyrophosphatase and phosphatase in epididymal luminal plasma and rete testis fluid. (+info)
(3/1005) Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.
Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro. (+info)
(4/1005) Isolation and characterization of a Golgi-rich fraction from the Harding-Passey mouse melanoma.
Golgi-rich fraction was isolated from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma by centrifugation through the discontinuous sucrose density gradient and its properties were compared with those of the same fraction isolated from rat liver. The specific activity of UDP-galactose: N-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase was 35 times higher in the melanoma Golgi fraction than in the melanoma homogenate and was a half that in the rat liver Golgi fraction. The specific activities of marker enzymes for other subcellular components such as 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the melanoma Golgi fraction were all one-third those in the melanoma homogenate. Electron micrographs of the negatively-stained Golgi fractions of melanoma and liver revealed the presence of a system of tubules, vesicles and plate-like center regions which are known as components of Golgi apparatus. Tyrosinase activity was found to be present in this fraction of mouse melanoma, but its specific activity was lower than that in the rough or smooth surface membrane fraction or in the melanosome fraction. (+info)
(5/1005) Regulation of I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Concerted actions by I-extension enzyme, I-branching enzyme, and beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I.
I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine is a unique carbohydrate composed of N-acetyllactosamine branches attached to linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine, which is synthesized by I-branching beta1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine can carry bivalent functional oligosaccharides such as sialyl Lewisx, which provide much better carbohydrate ligands than monovalent functional oligosaccharides. In the present study, we first demonstrate that I-branching beta1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase cloned from human PA-1 embryonic carcinoma cells transfers beta1,6-linked GlcNAc preferentially to galactosyl residues of N-acetyllactosamine close to nonreducing terminals. We then demonstrate that among various beta1, 4-galactosyltransferases (beta4Gal-Ts), beta4Gal-TI is most efficient in adding a galactose to linear and branched poly-N-acetyllactosamines. When a beta1,6-GlcNAc branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine was incubated with a mixture of beta4Gal-TI and i-extension beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, the major product was the oligosaccharide with one N-acetyllactosamine extension on the linear Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->3 side chain. Only a minor product contained galactosylated I-branch without N-acetyllactosamine extension. This finding was explained by the fact that beta4Gal-TI adds a galactose poorly to beta1,6-GlcNAc attached to linear poly-N-acetyllactosamines, while beta1, 3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and beta4Gal-TI efficiently add N-acetyllactosamine to linear poly-N-acetyllactosamines. Together, these results strongly suggest that galactosylation of I-branch is a rate-limiting step in I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis, allowing poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension mostly along the linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine side chain. These findings are entirely consistent with previous findings that poly-N-acetyllactosamines in human erythrocytes, PA-1 embryonic carcinoma cells, and rabbit erythrocytes contain multiple, short I-branches. (+info)
(6/1005) Donor substrate specificity of recombinant human blood group A, B and hybrid A/B glycosyltransferases expressed in Escherichia coli.
The human blood group A and B glycosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of GalNAc and Gal, to the (O)H-precursor structure Fuc alpha (1-2)Gal beta-OR to form the blood group A and B antigens, respectively. Changing four amino acids (176, 235, 266 and 268) alters the specificity from an A to a B glycosyltransferase. A series of hybrid blood group A/B glycosyltransferases were produced by interchanging these four amino acids in synthetic genes coding for soluble forms of the enzymes and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified hybrid glycosyltransferases were characterized by two-substrate enzyme kinetic analysis using both UDP-GalNAc and UDP-Gal donor substrates. The A and B glycosyltransferases were screened with other donor substrates and found to also utilize the unnatural donors UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc, respectively. The kinetic data demonstrate the importance of a single amino acid (266) in determining the A vs. B donor specificity. (+info)
(7/1005) Quantitative determination of N-acetylglucosamine residues at the non-reducing ends of peptidoglycan chains by enzymic attachment of [14C]-D-galactose.
The ability of human milk galactosyltransferase to attach D-galactose residues quantitatively to the C-4 of N-acetylglucosamine moieties at the ends of oligosaccharides has been utilized for the specific labeling and quantitative determination of the chain length of the glycan moiety of the bacterial cell wall. The average polysaccharide chain length of the soluble, uncrosslinked peptidoglycan secreted by Micrococcus luteus cells on incubation with penicillin G was studied with this technique and found to be approximately 70 hexosamines long. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan chain length of Escherichia coli sacculi of different cell shapes and dimensions was determined both in rod-shaped cells and in filaments induced by temperature shift of a division mutant or by addition of cephalexin or nalidixic acid. The average chain length found in most of these sacculi was between 70 and 100 hexosamines long. Small spherical 'mini' cells had chain lengths similar to those of the isogenic rod-like cells. (+info)
(8/1005) Target cell susceptibility to lysis by human natural killer cells is augmented by alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase and reduced by alpha(1, 2)-fucosyltransferase.
Susceptibility of porcine endothelial cells to human natural killer (NK) cell lysis was found to reflect surface expression of ligands containing Gal alpha(1,3)Gal beta(1,4)GlcNAc [corrected], the principal antigen on porcine endothelium recognized by xenoreactive human antibodies. Genetically modifying expression of this epitope on porcine endothelium by transfection with the alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene reduced susceptibility to human NK lysis. These results indicate that surface carbohydrate remodeling profoundly affects target cell susceptibility to NK lysis, and suggest that successful transgenic strategies to limit xenograft rejection by NK cells and xenoreactive antibodies will need to incorporate carbohydrate remodeling. (+info)