(1/94) Repair of pectus excavatum deformities: 30 years of experience with 375 patients.

OBJECTIVE: To review the surgical experience with pectus excavatum chest deformities at UCLA Medical Center during a 30-year period. BACKGROUND: Pectus excavatum is a relatively common malformation that is often symptomatic; however, children's physicians often do not refer patients for surgical correction. METHODS: Hospital records from 375 patients who underwent repair of pectus excavatum deformities between 1969 and 1999 were reviewed. Decrease in stamina and endurance during exercise was reported by 67%; 32% had frequent respiratory infections, 8% had chest pain, and 7% had asthma. The mean pectus severity score (width of chest divided by distance between posterior surface of sternum and anterior surface of spine) was 4.65 (normal chest = 2.56). All patients had marked cardiac deviation into the left chest. Repair was performed with subperiosteal resection of the abnormal cartilages, transverse wedge osteotomy of the anterior sternum, and internal support with a steel strut for 6 months. Repair was performed on 177 children before age 11 years; 38 adults with severe symptoms underwent repair. RESULTS: The mean hospital stay was 3.1 days. With a mean follow-up of 12.6 years, all patients with preoperative respiratory symptoms, exercise limitation, and chest pain experienced improvement. Vital capacity increased 11% (mean) within 9 months in 35 patients evaluated. There were no deaths. Complications included hypertrophic scar formation (35), atelectasis (12), pleural effusion (13), recurrent sternal depression (5), and pericarditis (3). More than 97% had a very good or excellent result. CONCLUSION: Pectus excavatum deformities can be repaired with a low rate of complications, a short hospital stay, and excellent long-term physiologic and cosmetic results.  (+info)

(2/94) Surgical correction of pectus excavatum using a retrosternal bar.

Pectus excavatum is a progressive congenital deformity for which surgical correction is an established procedure. The method of correction using a stainless steel retrosternal bar to maintain the sternum elevated is, in our experience, the most successful procedure. Successful surgical correction usually requires resection of all deformed costal cartilages with transverse osteotomy of the anterior table of the sternum and internal fixation using a bar anterior to the rib cage but behind the sternum. In the last 13 years 118 patients with this deformity have been evaluated and 72 patients have been surgically corrected by the described procedure. Of these 72 patients, 65 (90 percent) have had excellent or good cosmetic and functional results. The best results were obtained when the child was operated on between the ages of 6 and 10 years, the poorest results in those operated on under the age of 3 or over the age of 20. For a satisfactory result the bar must be left in for at least six months; the best results were obtained in those patients in whom the bar was left in for at least one year. No serious complications have followed the use of this technique.  (+info)

(3/94) Pulmonary function changes following surgical correction for pectus excavatum.

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether and to what extent pulmonary function returns to normal after surgical correction for pectus excavatum. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients who could be examined in person at the outpatient department of our hospital were included in this study. Of these patients, 24 were boys and 3 were girls, with age ranging from 3 to 16 years (mean: 8.67 years). The mean age at surgery was 4 years and mean years at follow-up was 6.8. Pulmonary function measurements included inspiratory vital capacity (IVC), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), functional residual capacity (FRC), RV/TLC ratio, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), forced ventilatory capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75% vital capacity (V75), maximal expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity (V50), maximal expiratory flow at 25% vital capacity (V25) and breathing reserve ratio (BR). RESULTS: TLC, FRC, MVV, MMEF, V75 and V50 were not different from normal values. IVC, FVC, FEV1 and V25 were significantly decreased compared with normal values. RV and RV/TLC were high in 87.5% cases. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative symptoms improved substantially after operation. Little airway obstruction was observed postoperatively, suggesting that patients with pectus excavatum should have surgery as early in life as possible, preferably by age 3.  (+info)

(4/94) Modified sternal elevation for children with pectus excavatum.

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience in the treatment of pectus excavatum (PE) using a modified sternal elevation procedure. METHODS: From Oct. 1986 to Dec. 1997, 171 patients with PE were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the First Hospital of West China University of Medical Sciences. All patients were diagnosed through a history and physical examination. Cardiopulmonary function was assessed by M-mode echocardiography and instrument of pulmonary function in 40 patients before and 4.2 years after surgery which was performed between 1989 and 1994. We performed the following three procedures in the sternal elevation: (1) forming the metal strut in a "arch" shape, (2) suturing the perichondrium into a "pipe" shape, and (3) encouraging patients to do chest expansion exercise after operation. All patients were followed up for 1 to 12 years. RESULTS: The normal contour of the costal cage was enlarged in all but one patient. Exercise tolerance was improved, and cardiac function recovered to the same level as in healthy children, while pulmonary function recovered very slowly after surgery. CONCLUSION: The normal appearance of chest wall can be recovered and normal cardiopulmonary function can be restored by the modified sternal elevation procedure in children with PE.  (+info)

(5/94) Repair of pectus excavatum and carinatum deformities in 116 adults.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of surgically correcting pectus excavatum and carinatum deformities in adult patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although pectus chest deformities are common, many patients progress to adulthood without surgical repair and experience increasing symptoms. There are sparse published data regarding repair of pectus deformities in adults. METHODS: Since 1987, 116 patients over the age of 18 years with pectus excavatum (n = 104) or carinatum (n = 12) deformities underwent correction using a highly modified Ravitch repair, with a temporary internal support bar. The ages ranged from 19 to 53 years (mean 30.1). Eighty-six patients sought repair after reviewing information regarding pectus deformities available on the Internet. Each patient experienced dyspnea with mild exertion and decreased endurance; 84 had chest pain with activity; 75 had palpitations and/or tachycardia. Seven patients underwent repair for symptomatic recurrent deformities. The mean severity score (chest width divided by distance from sternum to spine) was 4.8. The sternal bar was removed from 101 patients 6 months after the repair without complications. RESULTS: Each of the patients with reduced endurance or dyspnea with mild exercise experienced marked improvement within 6 months. Chest discomfort was reduced in 82 of the 84 patients. Complications included pleural effusion (n = 7), pneumothorax (n = 2), pericarditis (n = 2), dislodged sternal bar (n = 3), and mildly hypertrophic scar (n = 12). Mean hospitalization was 2.9 days; mean blood loss was 122 mL. Pain was mild and of short duration (intravenous analgesics were used a mean of 2.1 days). There were no deaths. With a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 109 of 113 respondents had a very good or excellent result. CONCLUSIONS: Although technically more difficult than in children, pectus deformities may be repaired in adults with low morbidity, short hospital stay, and very good physiologic and cosmetic results.  (+info)

(6/94) Complete congenital sternal cleft associated with pectus excavatum.

We report herein a rare case of complete congenital sternal cleft (absent sternum) and anterior pericardial defect in association with pectus excavatum. In neonates with absent sternum, the sternal bars can be easily approximated by simple suture, due to the flexibility of the cartilaginous thorax. There is also little danger of cardiac compression when the repair is performed early in life. If reconstruction is delayed, the increased rigidity of the chest wall and the physiologic accommodation of the thoracic organs to the circumference of the chest render simple approximation impossible, without serious compromise of the heart and lungs. Our patient was a 13-year-old girl, whose case was particularly unusual because of the association of sternal cleft with pectus excavatum. After surgical correction of the pectus excavatum, we were able to construct a sternum by incising the lateral border of each sternal bar, thereby creating flaps that we sutured together at midline. The sternal bars were then approximated by loops of nonabsorbable suture around their circumference. The patient had an uncomplicated course, and at the 12-month follow-up visit, her sternal appearance was normal.  (+info)

(7/94) Surgical treatment for pectus excavatum.

The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes in pectus excavatum patients undergoing a Ravitch operation with those undergoing a Nuss procedure. Retrospective study was conducted on one hundred and twenty three patients who underwent Ravitch operation (n=16) and Nuss procedure (n=107) between 1995 and 2002. Mean age of the patients was 7.9+/-6.2 yr. In the Ravitch group, operation time was 196.9+/-61.0 min, and required 10.2+/-2.6 chondral bone resections. Average hospital stay time was 15.9 days. In the Nuss group, operation time was 67.2+/-33.1 min, and bar removal was required two years after the bar insertion. The length of hospital stay was averagely 8.0 days, and postoperative reoperations were performed in five patients due to bar displacements, while early bar removal was required in one patient. The patient interviews for operation results were conducted and revealed that 92.3% of the patients in the Ravitch group showed good to excellent, while 93.3% of Nuss bar removed patients replied good to excellent. Though Nuss procedure has many advantages, it also has some disadvantages. So, the method of the operation should be selected according to the characteristics of the patient.  (+info)

(8/94) A late complication of pectus excavatum repair.

We report a late complication of pectus excavatum repair which highlights the importance of a chest X-ray in evaluating chest pain in patients who have had previous chest surgery. It also raises the question of whether or not implanted wires should be electively removed following bony union.  (+info)