OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play. (+info)
(2/840) Disease patterns of the homeless in Tokyo.
In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem in various countries throughout the world. The health problems of the homeless are considerable. The purpose of this study was to elicit, with sociodemographic profiles, the disease patterns among Tokyo's homeless. The subjects were 1,938 men who stayed at a welfare institution from 1992 to 1996. Diagnosed diseases/injuries and sociodemographic profiles were analyzed. The disease patterns of the homeless were compared to those of the male general population. Of the subjects, 8.3% were admitted to the hospital; 64.0% received outpatient care. Their observed morbidity rates by disease category were greater than those of the male general population in both Japan and Tokyo. Comorbidity of alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependent syndrome to both liver disease and pulmonary tuberculosis were greater than the average (P < .01). Construction work brought a higher risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (odds ratio = 2.0) and dorsopathies (odds ratio = 1.4) than did other jobs (P < .05). Disease patterns among the homeless in Tokyo were characterized by alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependence syndrome; liver disease; pulmonary tuberculosis; diabetes mellitus; fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains; hypertension; and cerebrovascular disease. Although the sociodemographic backgrounds of Tokyo's homeless have become more diverse, the principal occupation of the homeless was unskilled daily construction work, which underlay the characteristics of their disease patterns. (+info)
(3/840) Fracture-dislocations of the sacrum. Report of three cases.
The pattern of fracture-dislocation of the upper part of the sacrum is demonstrated in three patients. The fracture line followed the segmental form of the sacrum and was usually caused by a posterior force against the pelvis which had been locked by hip flexion and knee extension. Fractures of the lumbar transverse processes also occurred, presumably from avulsion by the quadratus lumborum muscle. The damage to the sacral plexus found in all three cases recovered after several months. Radiographs of the injury are difficult to obtain in severely injured patients but oblique views of the sacrum help to determine the extent of the forward dislocation. (+info)
(4/840) The clinical manifestations and pathomechanics of contracture of the extensor mechanism of the knee.
Experience with thirty-eight Asian children and adolescents who presented with either stiffness of the knee, genu recurvatum, habitual dislocation of the patella or congenital lateral dislocation of the patella showed that all those disorders were manifestations of contracture of the extensor mechanism, which fell into two groups according to the components involved. In Group I the main components affected were in the midline of the limb, namely rectus femoris and vastus intermedius; these patients presented with varying degrees of stiffness of the knee, or worse, with genu recurvatum. In Group II the main components involved were lateral to the midline of the limb, namely vastus lateralis and the ilio-tibial band; these patients presented with habitual dislocation of the patella, or worse, congenital lateral dislocation of the patella. In both groups untreated patients developed secondary adaptive changes such as subluxation of the tibia or marked genu valgum which made operative procedures more formidable and less effective. Release of the contracture should therefore be performed as early as possible. (+info)
(5/840) Intra-articular displaced fractures of the calcaneus. Operative vs non-operative treatment.
Twenty-eight patients with displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus treated by open reduction and fixation were compared with 30 patients with similar fractures treated conservatively. Judged by the clinical and radiographic criteria results were more satisfactory in the surgical group than in the nonoperative group, although high rates of poor results were encountered in both groups. (+info)
(6/840) Salvage of the head of the radius after fracture-dislocation of the elbow. A case report.
We describe a patient with a Mason type-III fracture of the head of the radius associated with traumatic dislocation of the elbow. The radial head was intact throughout its circumference despite being completely detached from the shaft and devoid of any soft-tissue attachments. Severe comminution of the radial neck prevented reconstruction by internal fixation and precluded prosthetic replacement of the head. The head was fixed to the shaft with a tricortical iliac-crest bone graft which replaced the neck. Two years later, the patient had a stable elbow with flexion from 10 degrees to 130 degrees. Radiologically, the head of the radius appeared to be viable and the bone graft had incorporated. (+info)
(7/840) Injury to the first rib synchondrosis in a rugby footballer.
Injuries to the first rib synchondrosis are uncommon in sport. The potential for serious complications following posterior displacement is similar to that seen with posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation. Clinical examination and plain radiography may not provide a definitive diagnosis. Computerised tomography is the most appropriate imaging modality if this injury is suspected. Posterior dislocation of the first rib costal cartilage with an associated fracture of the posterior sternal aspect of the synchondrosis has not been previously reported. (+info)
(8/840) Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation in an international gymnast.
Elbow dislocation is a rare injury in elite athletes. We report an unusual case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocations with a unilateral radial head fracture in an international female athlete competing on the asymmetrical bars. These injuries require prompt reduction and immediate mobilisation if an abrupt end to a promising career is to be prevented. (+info)