Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to reduce tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor microvascular density in experimental models. To these effects we would now like to add induction of differentiation, based on biological analysis of xenografted human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, WAG rnu/rnu) treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Treatment with TNP-470 (10 mg/kg s.c., n = 15) reduced the tumor growth by 66% and stereological vascular parameters (Lv, Vv, Sv) by 36-45%. The tumor cell apoptotic fraction increased more than threefold, resulting in a decrease in viable tumor cells by 33%. In contrast, the mean vascular diameter (29 microm) and the mean tumor cell proliferative index (49%) were unaffected. TNP-470-treated tumors exhibited striking chromaffin differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, observed as increased expression of insulin-like growth factor II gene (+88%), tyrosine hydroxylase (+96%), chromogranin A, and cellular processes. Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between differentiation and angiogenesis. It is suggested that by inhibiting angiogenesis, TNP-470 induces metabolic stress, resulting in chromaffin differentiation and apoptosis in neuroblastoma. Such agonal differentiation may be the link between angiostatic therapy and tumor cell apoptosis. (+info)
(2/763) Increased transcriptional activity of prostate-specific antigen in the presence of TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor.
Prostate-specific antigen, PSA, is regarded as a reliable surrogate marker for androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Concern has been raised that investigational agents may affect PSA secretion without altering tumour growth or volume. In a phase I trial, several patients with AIPC had elevated serum PSA levels while receiving TNP-470 that reversed upon discontinuation. TNP-470 inhibits capillary growth in several angiogenesis models. These observations prompted us to determine if TNP-470, or its metabolite, AGM-1883, altered PSA secretion. Intracellular protein and transcriptional levels of PSA and androgen receptor were also determined. The highest TNP-470 concentration produced a 40.6% decrease in cell number; AGM-1883 had minimal effects on cell viability. PSA secretion per cell was induced 1.1- to 1.5-fold following TNP-470 exposure. The same trend was observed for AGM-1883. PSA and AR were transcriptionally up-regulated within 30 min after exposure to TNP-470. PSA transcription was increased 1.4-fold, while androgen receptor (AR) transcription was induced 1.2-fold. The increased PSA transcriptional activity accounts for the increased PSA secretion. Increased AR transcription was also reflected at the protein level. In conclusion, TNP-470 and AGM-1883 both up-regulated PSA making clinical utilization of this surrogate marker problematic. (+info)
(3/763) Angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin or TNP-470 reduce intimal neovascularization and plaque growth in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
BACKGROUND: Neovascularization within the intima of human atherosclerotic lesions is well described, but its role in the progression of atherosclerosis is unknown. In this report, we first demonstrate that intimal vessels occur in advanced lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE -/-) mice. To test the hypothesis that intimal vessels promote atherosclerosis, we investigated the effect of angiogenesis inhibitors on plaque growth in apoE -/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE -/- mice were fed a 0.15% cholesterol diet. At age 20 weeks, mice were divided into 3 groups and treated for 16 weeks as follows: group 1, recombinant mouse endostatin, 20 mg. kg-1. d-1; group 2, fumagillin analogue TNP-470, 30 mg/kg every other day; and group 3, control animals that received a similar volume of buffer. Average cholesterol levels were similar in all groups. Plaque areas were quantified at the aortic origin. Median plaque area before treatment was 0.250 mm2 (range, 0.170 to 0.348; n=10). Median plaque areas were 0.321 (0.238 to 0.412; n=10), 0.402 (0.248 to 0.533; n=15), and 0.751 mm2 (0.503 to 0.838; n=12) for the endostatin, TNP-470, and control groups, respectively (P=0.0001). Therefore, endostatin and TNP-470 inhibited plaque growth during the treatment period by 85% and 70%. Intimal smooth muscle cell contents of plaques from control and treated mice were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged treatment with either angiogenesis inhibitor reduced plaque growth and intimal neovascularization in apoE -/- mice. Although the mechanism of plaque inhibition induced by these agents is not established, these results suggest that intimal neovascularization may promote plaque development. (+info)
(4/763) Inhibition of secretion by 1,3-Cyclohexanebis(methylamine), a dibasic compound that interferes with coatomer function.
We noted previously that certain aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibit the binding of coatomer to Golgi membranes in vitro. The inhibition is mediated in part by two primary amino groups present at the 1 and 3 positions of the 2-deoxystreptamine moiety of the antibiotics. These two amines appear to mimic the epsilon-amino groups present in the two lysine residues of the KKXX motif that is known to bind coatomer. Here we report the effects of 1, 3-cyclohexanebis(methylamine) (CBM) on secretion in vivo, a compound chosen for study because it contains primary amino groups that resemble those in 2-deoxystreptamine and it should penetrate lipid bilayers more readily than antibiotics. CBM inhibited coatomer binding to Golgi membranes in vitro and in vivo and inhibited secretion by intact cells. Despite depressed binding of coatomer in vivo, the Golgi complex retained its characteristic perinuclear location in the presence of CBM and did not fuse with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport from the ER to the Golgi was also not blocked by CBM. These data suggest that a full complement of coat protein I (COPI) on membranes is not critical for maintenance of Golgi integrity or for traffic from the ER to the Golgi but is necessary for transport through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. (+info)
(5/763) Effects of NTE-122, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification and secretions of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein and bile acids in HepG2.
We studied the effect of NTE-122 (trans-1,4-bis[[1-cyclohexyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl) ureido]methyl]cyclohexane), a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, on intracellular cholesterol esterification and the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB)-containing lipoprotein and bile acids in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. NTE-122 markably inhibited [3H]oleate incorporation into cholesteryl esters in HepG2 cells incubated with 5 microg/ml 25-hydroxycholesterol as a stimulus for ACAT (IC50=6.0 nM). On the other hand, NTE-122 did not affect [3H]oleate incorporation into triglycerides and phospholipids and [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol. The stimulation of ACAT by 25-hydroxycholesterol caused significant increases in the secretion of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters, radiolabeled triglycerides and apoB mass. NTE-122 pronouncedly inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled cholesteryl esters in proportion to the inhibition of cellular cholesterol esterification, and it significantly reduced the secretion of radiolabeled triglycerides and apoB mass in HepG2 cells incubated with 25-hydroxycholesterol. Furthermore, NTE-122 increased the secretion of bile acids synthesized from [14C]-cholesterol. These results suggest that NTE-122 is capable of exhibiting anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing both the cholesterol content and the amount of secreted very low-density lipoprotein and enhancing the excretion of bile acid from the liver. (+info)
(6/763) Effects of NTE-122, a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in macrophages.
We investigated the effects of a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, NTE-122 (trans-1,4-bis[[1-cyclohexyl-3-(4-dimethylamino phenyl)ureido]methyl]cyclohexane), on ACAT activities in macrophages originating from several species and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced cholesterol efflux in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 inhibited cell-free ACAT activities in human PMA-treated THP-1 cells and mouse J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 0.88 and 360 nM, respectively. NTE-122 competively inhibited the ACAT activity in PMA-treated THP-1 cells. NTE-122 also inhibited cellular ACAT activities in PMA-treated THP-1 cells, rat peritoneal macrophages and J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 3.5, 84 and 6800 nM, respectively. Furthermore, NTE-122 prevented cholesterol accumulation in PMA-treated THP-1 cells incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein, simultaneously with HDL, while it caused accumulation of a significant amount of free cholesterol in the absence and even in the presence of HDL. NTE-122 also enhanced HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from established foam cells converted from PMA-treated THP-1 cells. These results suggest that NTE-122, capable of inhibiting macrophage ACAT activity in humans more strongly than those in the other species, exhibits anti-atherogenic effects by preventing the foam cell formation and enhancing the foam cell regression in humans. (+info)
(7/763) The loss in hydrophobic surface area resulting from a Leu to Val mutation at the N-terminus of the aldehyde dehydrogenase presequence prevents import of the protein into mitochondria.
An apparent conservative mutation, Leu to Val, at the second residue of the rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) presequence resulted in a precursor protein that was not imported into mitochondria. Additional mutants were made to substitute various amino acids with nonpolar side chains for Leu2. The Ile, Phe, and Trp mutants were imported to an extent similar to that of the native precursor, but the Ala mutant was imported only about one-fourth as well. It was shown that the N-terminal methionine was removed from the L2V mutant in a reaction catalyzed by methionine aminopeptidase. The N-terminal methionine of native pALDH and the other mutant presequences was blocked, presumably by acetylation. Because of the difference in co-translational modification, the L2V mutant sustained a significant loss in the available hydrophobic surface of the presequence. Import competence was restored to the L2V mutant when it was translated using a system that did not remove Met1. The removal of an Arg-Gly-Pro helix linker segment (residues 11-14) from the L2V mutant, which shifted three leucine residues toward the N-terminus, also restored import competence. These results lead to the conclusion that a minimum amount of hydrophobic surface area near the N-termini of mitochondrial presequences is an essential property to determine their ability to be imported. As a result, both electrostatic and hydrophobic components must be considered when trying to understand the interactions between precursor proteins and proteins of the mitochondrial import apparatus. (+info)
(8/763) Metabolic drug interactions between angiogenic inhibitor, TNP-470 and anticancer agents in primary cultured hepatocytes and microsomes.
The potential metabolic drug interactions between TNP-470, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, and several commonly used anticancer agents, such as cyclophosphamide, taxol, and minocycline, were investigated in vitro using primary cultured hepatocytes and microsomes of rhesus monkeys. After incubation of hepatocytes with 5 microM [3H]TNP-470, rapid and extensive formation of six metabolites was observed, with M-II and M-IV being the predominant metabolites. After 30 min of incubation in the presence of 250 microM cyclophosphamide, concentrations of unchanged TNP-470 and M-IV were increased with values of 1.00 +/- 0.02 and 1.49 +/- 0.01 microM compared with control values of 0.67 +/- 0.09 (p =.02), 1.39 +/- 0. 03 microM (p <.01), respectively. In contrast, the concentration of M-II was substantially decreased from 1.69 +/- 0.86 to 1.02 +/- 0.16 microM (p =.01). Combination of taxol with TNP-470 led to a 50% decrease of M-II levels (p <.01), whereas unchanged TNP-470 and M-IV levels were increased by at least 2.5-fold compared with control (p =.08 and 0.01). Exposure of cells to TNP-470 with 250 microM minocycline had no effect on TNP-470 metabolism in monkey hepatocytes. In vitro studies with isolated monkey liver microsomes confirmed these drug-drug metabolic interactions detected at the cellular level. A detailed understanding of the potential drug interactions in TNP-470 metabolism occurring with taxol or cyclophosphamide is critical to fully elucidate the potentiation of the antitumor activity observed in vivo after coadministration of these two agents with TNP-470. (+info)