(1/83) Health sciences library building projects, 1998 survey.
Twenty-eight health sciences library building projects are briefly described, including twelve new buildings and sixteen additions, remodelings, and renovations. The libraries range in size from 2,144 square feet to 190,000 gross square feet. Twelve libraries are described in detail. These include three hospital libraries, one information center sponsored by ten institutions, and eight academic health sciences libraries. (+info)
(2/83) Role of health communications in Russia's diphtheria immunization program.
As part of a broader program in health communication assistance, project staff from Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival worked with staff from Russia's oblast (regional) public health agencies to design and implement communication activities supporting local diphtheria immunization efforts. Because aggressive community outreach efforts and strong administrative sanctions had already achieved impressive adult coverage rates for first doses of diphtheria toxoid vaccine, communication interventions emphasized the need for second and third doses. Outcomes were assessed through vaccination coverage data and more qualitative measures. In one project site, the increase in adult coverage (two or more doses) was very modest. In a second site, with a stronger communications component, coverage increased significantly (from 20% to 80%). Although it is not possible to disentangle completely the effects of communications from other aspects of oblast immunization programs, these and other outcome data suggest that health communications can play an important role in Russia's ongoing mass immunization efforts. (+info)
(3/83) The impact of health communication and enhanced laboratory-based surveillance on detection of cyclosporiasis outbreaks in California.
We investigated the timing of diagnosis, influence of media information on testing for Cyclospora, and the method used to identify cases during eight cyclosporiasis outbreaks in California in spring of 1997. We found that Internet information, media reports, and enhanced laboratory surveillance improved detection of these outbreaks. (+info)
(4/83) PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers.
This paper reviews the fundamental concepts and basic theory of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fibers. It introduces a unified notation and methodology to link the various views and concepts in Jones space and Stokes space. The discussion includes the relation between Jones vectors and Stokes vectors, rotation matrices, the definition and representation of PMD vectors, the laws of infinitesimal rotation, and the rules for PMD vector concatenation. (+info)
(5/83) Understanding financing options for PACS implementation. Picture archiving and communication systems.
The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk sharing arrangements, offer several theoretical advantages including technology obsolescence protection in the form of built-in upgrades, preservation of borrowing power, multiple end-of-term options, and payment flexibility (which can be directly tied to realized productivity and operational efficiency gains). These options are discussed, with emphasis on the acquisition of PACS. (+info)
(6/83) Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding.
OBJECTIVE: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media. DESIGN: Content analysis. SUBJECTS: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999. SETTING: UK mass media. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes. RESULTS: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in the newspaper sample. Bottle feeding was shown more often than breast feeding and was presented as less problematic. Bottle feeding was associated with "ordinary" families whereas breast feeding was associated with middle class or celebrity women. The health risks of formula milk and the health benefits of breast feeding were rarely mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: The media rarely present positive information on breast feeding, even though this feeding practice is associated with the most health benefits. Health professionals and policy makers should be aware of patterns in media coverage and the cultural background within which women make decisions about infant feeding. (+info)
(7/83) Prescribers prefer people: The sources of information used by doctors for prescribing suggest that the medium is more important than the message.
AIMS: The sources of prescribing information are legion but there is little knowledge about which are actually used in practice by doctors when prescribing. The aims of this study were to determine the sources of prescribing information considered important by doctors, establish which were used in practice, and investigate if hospital and primary care physicians differed in their use of the sources. METHODS: Two hundred general practitioners (GPs) and 230 hospital doctors were asked to rate information sources in terms of their importance for prescribing 'old' and 'new' drugs, and then to name the source from which information about the last new drug prescribed was actually derived. RESULTS: Among 108 GPs, the Drugs and Therapeutics Bulletin and medical journal articles were most frequently rated as important for information on both old and new drugs while pharmaceutical representatives and hospital/consultant recommendations were more important for information on new drugs, as opposed to old. In practice, information on the last new drug prescribed was derived from pharmaceutical representatives in 42% of cases and hospital/consultant recommendations in 36%, with other sources used infrequently. Among 118 hospital doctors, the British National Formulary (BNF) and senior colleagues were of greatest theoretical importance. In practice, information on the last new drug prescribed was derived from a broad range of sources: colleagues, 29%; pharmaceutical representatives, 18%; hospital clinical meetings, 15%; journal articles, 13%; lectures, 10%. GPs and hospital doctors differed significantly in their use of pharmaceutical representatives (42% vs 18%) and colleagues (7% vs 29%) as sources of prescribing information (P < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: The sources most frequently rated important in theory were not those most used in practice, especially among GPs. Both groups under-estimated the importance of pharmaceutical representatives. Most importantly, the sources of greatest practical importance were those involving the transfer of information through the medium of personal contact. (+info)
(8/83) Information and education in schistosomiasis control: an analysis of the situation in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
This paper presents the main ideas discussed in the round-table "Social and Educational Aspects of Schistosomiasis Control", during the VII International Symposium of Schistosomiasis. Considering the perspectives of schistosomiasis control in Brazil, it is described the example of the State of Minas Gerais, where the disease has been registered for more than seven decades. The importance of an extensive evaluation is now more important, considering the recent change in the Brazilian health system, since the Federal responsibility for the tropical diseases control programs have been replaced by the municipalities coordination. In this way, it is urgent to develop effective alternatives to assist the municipal staffs in the control task. In the specific case of health education, one observes a wide gap between the planned objectives and what is in fact carried out. Instant objectives and the utilization of traditional techniques prevail, which do not take into account the active participation of the population involved. Based on the authors' experience in the scientific and health education, the paper analyzes: (1) some data from a case study in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which presents the social representation and perception of schistosomiasis by the population; (2) an analysis of 35 different informative and educative materials used in Brazil since the sixties, and (3) some recommendations resulted from the studies that were carried out. (+info)