The cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). NK cell mediated cytotoxicity on CL-1 target cells was detected by 51Cr release assay. SEM showed that a canine NK cell extended projections to the CL-1 target cell. Furthermore, the surface of CL-1 target cells changed a mesh-like structure. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were morphologically demonstrated. (+info)
(2/379) Purification and protein composition of PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated.
The marine, icosahedral bacteriophage PM2 was isolated in the late 1960s. It was the first phage for which lipids were firmly demonstrated to be part of the virion structure and it has been classified as the type organism of the Corticoviridae family. The host, Pseudoalteromonas espejiana BAL-31, belongs to a common group of marine bacteria. We developed a purification method producing virions with specific infectivity approximately as high as that of the lipid-containing phages PRD1 and φ6. The sensitivity of the virus to normally used purification media such as those containing sucrose is demonstrated. We also present an alternative host, a pseudoalteromonad, that allows enhanced purification of the virus under reduced salt conditions. We show, using N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison with the genomic sequence, that there are at least eight structural proteins in the infectious virus. (+info)
(3/379) Synthesis of acetylcholine receptor by denervated rat diaphragm muscle.
Acetylcholine receptor was purified by affinity chromatography from denervated rat hemidiaphragms that had been incubated in organ culture for 24 hr in medium containing [35-S] methionine. Radioactive acetylcholine receptor was identified in purified preparations by zone sedimentation in a sucrose gradient, by isoelectric focusing, and by precipitation with an antiserum to the acetylcholine receptor from electric eel. When innervated and denervated hemidiaphragms were incubated with [35-S] methionine in organ culture, and the acetylcholine receptors from each were purified separately, only the preparation from denervated muscles contained radioactive receptor as determined by zone sedimentation. We conclude that newly synthesized receptor is accumulated as a result of muscle denervation. (+info)
(4/379) Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid. Selective removal of secretory contaminants from granule membranes.
A membrane subfraction obtained from secretion granules isolated from rabbit parotid has been shown to be contaminated by residual secretory proteins to an estimated level of 25-30% of its total protein. In the present study an additional contaminant has been identified by improved mixing experiments and by comparative peptide mapping of specific polypeptides recovered from gels of membrane and content subfractions. This contaminant coelectrophoresis with (and probably comprises the bulk of) the majority component of the membrane subfraction (mol wt approximately 40,000). The contaminating polypeptides can be removed to a large extent by treating the membranes with low concentrations of saponin in the presence of 0.3 M Na2SO4. Although this treatment disrupts the typical bilayer structure of the granule membrane, it does not appear to cause dissociation of its phospholipids or bona fide membrane proteins. (+info)
(5/379) Dye-ligand chromatographic purification of intact multisubunit membrane protein complexes: application to the chloroplast H+-FoF1-ATP synthase.
n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside was used as a detergent to solubilize the ammonium sulphate precipitate of chloroplast F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase, which was purified further by dye-ligand chromatography. Upon reconstitution of the purified protein complex into phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidic acid liposomes, ATP synthesis, driven by an artificial DeltapH/Deltapsi, was observed. The highest activity was achieved with ATP synthase solubilized in n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside followed by chromatography with Red 120 dye. The optimal dye for purification with CHAPS was Green 5. All known subunits were present in the monodisperse proton-translocating ATP synthase preparation obtained from chloroplasts. (+info)
(6/379) A surface antigen influenza vaccine. 1. Purification of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins.
Influenza virus was centrifuged in a KII rotor through a sucrose gradient containing Triton N101, a non-ionic surfactant. The micelles of surfactant formed a band in the gradient. As virus particles passed through the surfactant, the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins were stripped from the surface and remained near the surfactant micelles. The residual virus particles sedimented into a denser region of the gradient and were thus separated from the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens. Fractions containing the surface antigens were pooled and Triton was removed by phase-separation at the cloud point. (+info)
(7/379) A surface antigen influenza vaccine. 2. Pyrogenicity and antigenicity.
Conventional influenza vaccine containing whole virus particles purified on a zonal centrifuge is pyrogenic and can cause systemic and local adverse side effects. An improved vaccine was therefore prepared which contained only the surface antigens of the virus adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. The antigenicity of this vaccine was compared with conventional vaccine in chickens. Both vaccines induced similar titres of serum haemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition antibody. The dose response curves, however, were different. The surface antigens at vaccine strength without aluminium hydroxide were of negligible pyrogenicity in rabbits. (+info)
(8/379) Human bone marrow lymphocytes. I. Distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in the bone marrow of normal individuals.
This study was undertaken to determine the proportions and in vitro immune capacities of lymphocyte populations in the bone marrows of normal humans. Relatively pure mononuclear cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow aspirates by linear sucrose gradient centrifugations. Simultaneous peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens from each individual were assayed for lymphocyte surface markers and mitogen responsiveness. Maximal possible contamination of bone marrow aspirates by peripheral blood was determined by performing aspirates on individuals who had received 51chromium-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Rhymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, as determined by the sheep red blood cell (E) rosette assay, comprised 8.6-(plus or minus 1.6)% of the total bone marrow lymphocyte pool. Bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, as determined by the presence of a complement receptor, made up 15.4-(plus or minus 1.9)% of the lymphocyte pool whereas 74.6 (plus or minus 2.4)% of mononuclear cells lacked easily detectable surface markers. These findings could not be explained by contamination with peripheral blood lymphocytes since contamination was corrected for in the calculations. Lymphocyte-enriched suspensions of bone marrow cells responded to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanalin A, and particularly pokeweed mitogen. In vitro incubations of bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes with tritiated thymidine followed by determinations of E and erythrocyte antibody complement (EAC) rosettes were performed. Simultaneous rosetteradioautographs demonstrated that the proliferative potential of bone marrow B lymphocytes was greater than peripheral blood B lymphocytes (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, the proliferative potential of bone marrow T lymphocytes was the same as that of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that in addition to containing B lymphocytes the normal bone marrow contains a small fraction of T lymphocytes similar to the mature T lymphocyte pool found in the peripheral blood. These T cells most probably enter the bone marrow parenchyma as part of the normal recirculating lymphocyte pool. (+info)