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(1/702) Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart.

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

(2/702) Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound.

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

(3/702) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells.

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

(4/702) Novel regulation of the A-type K+ current in murine proximal colon by calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

1. The kinetics of inactivation of delayed rectifier K+ current in murine colonic myocytes differed in amphotericin-permeabilized patch and conventional patch clamp. The difference was accounted for by Ca2+ buffering. 2. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors increased the rate of inactivation and slowed recovery from inactivation of the outward current. This was seen in single steps and in the envelope of the current tails. The effect was largely on the TEA-insensitive component of current. 3. Dialysis of myocytes with autothiophosphorylated CaMKII slowed inactivation. This effect was reversed by addition of CaMKII inhibitor. 4. Antibodies revealed CaMKII-like immunoreactivity in murine colonic myocytes and other cells. Immunoblots identified a small protein with CaMKII-like immunoreactivity in homogenates of colonic muscle. 5. We conclude that CaMKII regulates delayed rectifier K+ currents in murine colonic myocytes. The changes in the delayed rectifier current may participate in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of gastrointestinal motility.  (+info)

(5/702) Enhanced amphetamine- and K+-mediated dopamine release in rat striatum after repeated amphetamine: differential requirements for Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and synaptic vesicles.

After cessation of repeated, intermittent amphetamine, we detected an emergent Ca2+-dependent component of amphetamine-induced dopamine release and an increase in calmodulin and Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity in rat striatum. This study examined the involvement of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) and synaptic vesicles in the enhanced Ca2+-dependent dopamine release in response to amphetamine or K+ in rat striatum. Rats were pretreated for 5 d with 2.5 mg/kg amphetamine or saline and withdrawn from drug for 10 d. The selective CaM kinase II inhibitor KN-93 (1 microM), but not the inactive analog KN-92, attenuated the Ca2+-dependent amphetamine-mediated dopamine release from amphetamine-pretreated rats but had no effect in saline-pretreated controls. [3H]Dopamine uptake was unaltered by repeated amphetamine or KN-93 and was Ca2+ independent. Striatal dopamine release stimulated by 50 mM KCl was enhanced twofold after repeated amphetamine compared with that in saline controls but was unaffected by KN-93. To examine the requirement for dopaminergic vesicles in the Ca2+-dependent dopamine release, we administered reserpine to saline- and amphetamine-pretreated rats 1 d before killing. Reserpine pretreatment did not affect amphetamine-mediated dopamine release from either pretreatment group but completely ablated K+-mediated dopamine release. Reserpine did not disrupt the ability of 1 microM KN-93 to block the Ca2+-dependent amphetamine-mediated dopamine release from amphetamine-pretreated rats. The results indicate that the enhanced dopamine release elicited by amphetamine from chronically treated rats is dependent on Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and is independent of vesicular dopamine storage. On the contrary, the enhanced depolarization-mediated vesicular dopamine release is independent of Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation.  (+info)

(6/702) Biochemical and biological effects of KN-93, an inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, on the initial events of mouse egg activation induced by ethanol.

Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is transiently activated in mouse eggs by the increase in calcium that occurs upon activation with ethanol. This study investigated the biological and biochemical effects of KN-93, a reported selective inhibitor of CaMKII, to explore the potential role of this kinase in the initial events of egg activation. Mouse eggs were incubated for 30 min in the presence of different concentrations of KN-93 and induced to activate by 7% ethanol. KN-93 elicited a dose-dependent inhibition of polar body emission that resulted from the failure of the eggs to undergo meiosis resumption and inactivation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF). Furthermore, 15 mumol KN-93 l-1 produced a marked reduction in ethanol-induced loss of cortical granules. In vivo biochemical analysis revealed that 15 mumol KN-93 l-1 was responsible for significant inhibition of ethanol-stimulated CaMKII. The activity of the enzyme remained at a resting value, in spite of the presence of a calcium signal similar to that measured in control activated eggs. The inhibitory effects of KN-93 on the parameters tested in this study could not be mimicked by the inactive analogue KN-92. These results show that in mouse eggs, when ethanol-induced CaMKII activation was prevented, cortical granule exocytosis and meiosis resumption were inhibited. This suggests that CaMKII acts as a switch in the transduction of the calcium signal triggering mammalian egg activation.  (+info)

(7/702) Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.

The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants.  (+info)

(8/702) Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

We examined whether mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is activated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in GH3 cells, and whether MAP kinase activation is involved in secretion of prolactin from these cells. Protein kinase inhibitors--such as PD098059, calphostin C, and genistein--and removal of extracellular Ca2+ inhibited MAP kinase activation by TRH. A cAMP analogue activated MAP kinase in these cells. Effects of cAMP on MAP kinase activation were inhibited by PD098059. TRH-induced prolactin secretion was not inhibited by levels of PD098059 sufficient to i activation but was inhibited by wortmannin (1 microM) and KN93. Treatment of GH3 cells with either TRH or cAMP significantly inhibited DNA synthesis and induced morphological changes. The effects stimulated by TRH were reversed by PD098059 treatment, but the same effects stimulated by cAMP were not. Treatment of GH3 cells with TRH for 48 h significantly increased the prolactin content in GH3 cells and decreased growth hormone content. The increase in prolactin was completely abolished by PD098059, but the decrease in growth hormone was not. These results suggest that TRH-induced MAP kinase activation is involved in prolactin synthesis and differentiation of GH3 cells, but not in prolactin secretion.  (+info)