(57/181) Control of CNS cell-fate decisions by SHP-2 and its dysregulation in Noonan syndrome.

Within the developing mammalian CNS, growth factors direct multipotent precursors to generate neurons versus glia, a process that if perturbed might lead to neural dysfunction. In this regard, genetic mutations resulting in constitutive activation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 cause Noonan Syndrome (NS), which is associated with learning disabilities and mental retardation. Here, we demonstrate that genetic knockdown of SHP-2 in cultured cortical precursors or in the embryonic cortex inhibited basal neurogenesis and caused enhanced and precocious astrocyte formation. Conversely, expression of an NS SHP-2 mutant promoted neurogenesis and inhibited astrogenesis. Neural cell-fate decisions were similarly perturbed in a mouse knockin model that phenocopies human NS. Thus, SHP-2 instructs precursors to make neurons and not astrocytes during the neurogenic period, and perturbations in the relative ratios of these two cell types upon constitutive SHP-2 activation may contribute to the cognitive impairments in NS patients.  (+info)

(58/181) The spectrum of cardiac anomalies in Noonan syndrome as a result of mutations in the PTPN11 gene.

OBJECTIVE: Noonan syndrome is a clinically homogeneous but genetically heterogeneous condition. Type 1 Noonan syndrome is defined by the presence of a mutation in the PTPN11 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the cases. Phenotype descriptions and cardiac defects from cohorts with Noonan syndrome were delineated in the "pregenomic era." We report the heart defects and links to gene dysfunction in cardiac development in a large cohort of patients with type 1 Noonan syndrome. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter study based on clinical history, pictures, and medical and cardiologic workup over time. Data were collected by referral geneticists. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of exons 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12, and 13 and their intron-exon boundaries, which harbor 98% of identified mutations the PTPN11 gene. RESULTS: A PTPN11 gene mutation was identified in 104 (38.25%) of 274 patients with Noonan syndrome. Heart defect was present in 85%. The most prevalent congenital heart defects were pulmonary valve stenosis (60%), atrial septal defect, ostium secundum type (25%), and stenosis of the peripheral pulmonary arteries (in at least 15%). Pulmonary valve stenosis and atrial septal defect, ostium secundum type, were significantly associated with the identification of a mutation in the PTPN11 gene. Ventricular septal defect and most left-sided heart defects showed a trend toward overrepresentation in the group without a mutation. CONCLUSION: We compared our data with previous series and integrated the comprehension of molecular PTPN11 gene dysfunction in heart development.  (+info)

(59/181) SOS1 is the second most common Noonan gene but plays no major role in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in various genes encoding proteins of the Ras-MAPK signalling cascade have been identified as the genetic basis of Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS). Mutations of SOS1, the gene encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras, have been the most recent discoveries in patients with NS, but this gene has not been studied in patients with CFCS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated SOS1 in a large cohort of patients with disorders of the NS-CFCS spectrum, who had previously tested negative for mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2. Missense mutations of SOS1 were discovered in 28% of patients with NS. In contrast, none of the patients classified as having CFCS was found to carry a pathogenic sequence change in this gene. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed SOS1 as the second major gene for NS. Patients carrying mutations in this gene have a distinctive phenotype with frequent ectodermal anomalies such as keratosis pilaris and curly hair. However, the clinical picture associated with SOS1 mutations is different from that of CFCS. These findings corroborate that, despite being caused by gain-of-function mutations in molecules belonging to the same pathway, NS and CFCS scarcely overlap genotypically.  (+info)

(60/181) Large chondroma of the dural convexity in a patient with Noonan's syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

INTRODUCTION: Intracranial chondromas are extremely rare intracranial tumours that usually arise from the skull base synchondrosis. Exceptionally, they may grow from cartilage rests within the dura mater of the convexity or the falx. They may be part of Ollier's multiple enchondromatosis or Maffuci's syndrome. We describe the case of a young male diagnosed of Noonan's syndrome that underwent resection of a large intracranial chondroma arising from the dural convexity. To our best knowledge this is the first report of such association. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old male presented with a single generalized seizure. The patient was previously diagnosed of Noonan's syndrome on the basis of his special phenotype (Turner-like), low stature, cardiac malformation, retarded sexual and bone development and normal karyotype. He harboured mild psychomotor retardation. Physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Brain Magnetic Resonance image showed a large well-circumscribed intracranial mass in the dural convexity of the left frontal-parietal lobes, with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and no peritumoural oedema. The patient was initiated on valproic acid and underwent craniotomy and complete excision of the tumour. The tumour was firm, white-greyish, avascular and could be finely dissected away from the cortex. Postoperative seizures required additional anticonvulsant therapy. He was discharged uneventfully. The pathological study revealed a mature chondroma. Subsequent brain MRI studies have shown no evidence of recurrence after 33 months of follow up. DISCUSSION: Chondromas comprise less than 0.3% of intracranial tumours. Only twenty-five cases of intracranial dural convexity chondromas are reported in the literature. Several hystopathogenetic theories have been proposed: metaplasia of meningeal fibroblasts and perivascular meningeal tissue, traumatic or inflammatory cartilaginous activation of fibroblasts and growth of aberrant embryonal cartilaginous rests in the dura mater. Chondromas present clinical features similar to meningiomas. CT scan imaging shows a mass of variable density due to different degrees of calcification with minimum to moderate contrast enhancement. MRI studies show a well-circumscribed lesion without surrounding tissue oedema, that exhibit heterogeneous signal with intermediate to low intensity on T1-weighted images and mixed intensity on T2-weighted images with minimum enhancement. Angiogram is clue to differentiate from meningiomas since chondromas are completely avascular. Complete tumour resection including its dural attachment is the treatment of choice. Long-term prognosis is favourable. Radiation therapy is currently not recommended for residual tumours or inoperable patients due to risk of malignization. Noonan's syndrome (also known as pseudo-Turner syndrome) is a complex familial genetic disorder with a phenotype that resembles that of Turner's syndrome but exhibits no chromosomal defect. No predisposition of Noonan's syndrome for tumoural development is reported in the literature. Association of a dural convexity chondroma with Noonan's syndrome is unique as far as the literature is concerned.  (+info)

(61/181) Mediating ERK 1/2 signaling rescues congenital heart defects in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome.

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of defects, which most frequently include proportionate short stature, craniofacial anomalies, and congenital heart disease (CHD). NS is the most common nonchromosomal cause of CHD, and 80%-90% of NS patients have cardiac involvement. Mutations within the protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2, phosphatase 2 (SHP2) are responsible for approximately 50% of the cases of NS with cardiac involvement. To understand the developmental stage- and cell type-specific consequences of the NS SHP2 gain-of-function mutation, Q79R, we generated transgenic mice in which the mutated protein was expressed during gestation or following birth in cardiomyocytes. Q79R SHP2 embryonic hearts showed altered cardiomyocyte cell cycling, ventricular noncompaction, and ventricular septal defects, while, in the postnatal cardiomyocyte, Q79R SHP2 expression was completely benign. Fetal expression of Q79R led to the specific activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, and breeding of the Q79R transgenics into ERK1/2-null backgrounds confirmed the pathway's necessity and sufficiency in mediating mutant SHP2's effects. Our data establish the developmental stage-specific effects of Q79R cardiac expression in NS; show that ablation of subsequent ERK1/2 activation prevents the development of cardiac abnormalities; and suggest that ERK1/2 modulation could have important implications for developing therapeutic strategies in CHD.  (+info)

(62/181) Cardio-facio-cutaneous and Noonan syndromes due to mutations in the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway: genotype-phenotype relationships and overlap with Costello syndrome.

Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, Noonan syndrome (NS), and Costello syndrome (CS) are clinically related developmental disorders that have been recently linked to mutations in the RAS/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. This study was a mutation analysis of the KRAS, BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 genes in a total of 130 patients (40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CFC, 20 patients without HRAS mutations from the French Costello family support group, and 70 patients with NS without PTPN11 or SOS1 mutations). BRAF mutations were found in 14/40 (35%) patients with CFC and 8/20 (40%) HRAS-negative patients with CS. KRAS mutations were found in 1/40 (2.5%) patients with CFC, 2/20 (10%) HRAS-negative patients with CS and 4/70 patients with NS (5.7%). MEK1 mutations were found in 4/40 patients with CFC (10%), 4/20 (20%) HRAS-negative patients with CS and 3/70 (4.3%) patients with NS, and MEK2 mutations in 4/40 (10%) patients with CFC. Analysis of the major phenotypic features suggests significant clinical overlap between CS and CFC. The phenotype associated with MEK mutations seems less severe, and is compatible with normal mental development. Features considered distinctive for CS were also found to be associated with BRAF or MEK mutations. Because of its particular cancer risk, the term "Costello syndrome" should only be used for patients with proven HRAS mutation. These results confirm that KRAS is a minor contributor to NS and show that MEK is involved in some cases of NS, demonstrating a phenotypic continuum between the clinical entities. Although some associated features appear to be characteristic of a specific gene, no simple rule exists to distinguish NS from CFC easily.  (+info)

(63/181) Biochemical and functional characterization of germ line KRAS mutations.

Germ line missense mutations in HRAS and KRAS and in genes encoding molecules that function up- or downstream of Ras in cellular signaling networks cause a group of related developmental disorders that includes Costello syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. We performed detailed biochemical and functional studies of three mutant K-Ras proteins (P34R, D153V, and F156L) found in individuals with Noonan syndrome and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Mutant K-Ras proteins demonstrate a range of gain-of-function effects in different cell types, and biochemical analysis supports the idea that the intrinsic Ras guanosine nucleotide triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, the responsiveness of these proteins to GTPase-activating proteins, and guanine nucleotide dissociation all regulate developmental programs in vivo.  (+info)

(64/181) Noonan syndrome: a case report.

Noonan syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphia, short stature, cardiac defects and skeletal malformations. It may be sporadic or inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait and occurs, one in 1,000-2,500 children. This is a case report of a 13 year-old girl who was referred by a general dental practitioner to a pediatric dentist for management. Full mouth dental rehabilitation was done and the child was brought to a dental institution for correction of orofacial and occlusal defects. Multidisciplinary treatment is the key to success in managing children with Noonan syndrome and the pediatric dentists play an important position to lead the health team.  (+info)