(41/226) PGD in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome patients.
The use of ICSI has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of male infertility. Even azoospermic patients with focal spermatogenesis in the testis, may benefit from the ICSI technique in order to father a child. As ICSI use has become more common, centres have introduced infertility treatment for Klinefelter patients. To date, 34 healthy children have been born using ICSI without PGD, and the conception of one 47,XXY fetus has been reported. In view of the possible risk of an increased gonosome number in the spermatozoa of Klinefelter patients, a safer approach--offering these couples ICSI combined with PGD--has been used, and has resulted in the birth of three healthy children. Couples in which the male suffered from Klinefelter's syndrome were first treated in 1995; these patients were offered ICSI + PGD using FISH technology, notably to enumerate the X and Y chromosomes. ICSI + PGD was performed in 32 cycles of 20 couples with spermatozoa originating from a fresh ejaculate (n = 1), testicular biopsy (n = 21) or frozen-thawed testicular biopsy (n = 10). Normal fertilization occurred in 56.0 +/- 22.4% of the successfully injected oocytes. On day 3 of development, 119 embryos from 29 cycles were of sufficient quality to undergo biopsy and subsequent PGD; a positive result was obtained in 113 embryos. Embryos were available for transfer in 26 cycles, with a mean of 1.6 +/- 0.6 embryos per transfer. Eight pregnancies were obtained, and five resulted in a delivery. A total of 113 embryos from couples with Klinefelter's syndrome was compared with 578 embryos from control couples with X-linked disease where PGD was used to determine gender. A significant fall occurred in the rate of normal embryos for couples with Klinefelter's syndrome (54.0%) compared with controls (77.2%). Moreover, a significantly increased risk of abnormalities was observed for sex chromosomes and autosomes; for each autosome separately, this reached significance level for chromosomes 18 and 21 only. Hence, a cautious approach is warranted in advising couples with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome. Moreover, the use of ICSI + PGD or prenatal diagnosis should be carefully considered. (+info)
(42/226) Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.
Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference. (+info)
(43/226) Chromosomal abnormalities and their relation to disease.
When human chromosome anomalies were first described in 1959, it appeared that specific abnormalities might be correlated with specific syndromes. Mongolism and the D and E syndromes are examples of specific syndromes associated with the presence of an extra autosome. Klinefelter's syndrome may be associated with a variety of different sex chromosome anomalies including XXY, XXYY, XXXY and XXXXY. The lastnamed variant is the only one that frequently presents features distinguishing it from the others. An XO sex chromosome complex is found in many women with gonadal dysgenesis. However, a variety of mosaicisms have been described in association with this condition, including XO/XX, XO/XXX, XO/XX/XXX, XO/XY and XO/XYY. Extra X chromosomes in phenotypical females do not seem to impair fertility or be consistently associated with congenital anomalies. Two families are described in which chromosome anomalies were found, but the association with defects was irregular. In one family the abnormality involved one of the number 16 chromosomes and in the other it involved one of the small acrocentric chromosomes. (+info)
(44/226) THE XXYY VARIANT OF KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME.
Three males with an XXYY sex chromosome complex are described. These patients, together with five XXYY subjects recorded in the literature, show the clinical features of Klinefelter's syndrome. Taking into consideration the findings in XYY and XXXYY individuals, it appears that the addition of a Y chromosome to XY, XXY and XXXY complexes has a variable and as yet not clearly delineated harmful effect. For example, a 44 + XXYY complement of chromosomes may prove to have significant manifestations in skeletal maturation and predispose to vascular and cutaneous abnormalities of the lower extremities in older patients. But when two Y chromosomes are present, the phenotype does not differ markedly from that resulting from the presence of a single Y chromosome in the sex chromosome complex. This finding is compatible with the view that the Y chromosome of man is relatively inert, compared with the autosomes, except for genes that function in male sex determination. (+info)
(45/226) Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.
The first case of Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus is reported. A 41-year-old man admitted for hyperosmolar diabetic coma with a past history of diabetes insipidus was diagnosed as having Klinefelter's syndrome by endocrinological examination and sex chromosome analysis. In this case, glucose tolerance test was normalized half a year later and blood glucose was well controlled with diet therapy alone. (+info)
(46/226) Testicular sperm extraction in azoospermic men submitted to bilateral orchidopexy.
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to evaluate whether bilateral orchidopexy represents a poor or good prognostic factor in azoospermic men undergoing testicular sperm extraction (TESE). METHODS: One hundred and seven presumed non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients, according to conventional clinical parameters (volume of testis, FSH, clinical history) were submitted to testicular biopsy with TESE. Thirty men (28%) had a history of bilateral orchidopexy for cryptorchidism. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis or mild hypospermatogenesis was diagnosed in 12/30 ex-cryptorchid patients and in 7/77 presumed NOA patients (P = 0.0004). Conversely, pure Sertoli cell-only syndrome or complete maturation arrest was found in 10/30 ex-cryptorchid patients and in 48/77 presumed NOA patients (P = 0.0094). In 53/107 patients (49.5%), TESE allowed a positive sperm retrieval. At least one spermatozoon was observed in 22/30 ( approximately 73%) ex-cryptorchid patients and in 31/77 ( approximately 40%) presumed NOA patients (P = 0.0026). A large number of spermatozoa (equivalent to an obstructive pathology) were retrieved in 13/30 ex-cryptorchid and in 10/77 presumed NOA patients (P = 0.001). A history of bilateral orchidopexy in presumed NOA patients correlates positively for the chance of retrieving testicular spermatozoa (odds ratio 3.8; 95% confidence interval 1.41-10.21; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Although bilateral cryptorchidism is usually considered a testicular secretive dysfunction, TESE permits retrieval of a large number of spermatozoa in almost 40% of cases. Our data suggest the existence of congenital or acquired obstructive anomalies of the seminal ducts in azoospermic orchidopexed men. (+info)
(47/226) Can biological or clinical parameters predict testicular sperm recovery in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome patients?
BACKGROUND: Contradictory results are available regarding prediction of testicular sperm extraction in 47,XXY patients. This study, therefore, aimed at assessing the availability of testicular sperm and evaluates clinical parameters predicting successful sperm retrieval in azoospermic 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome patients. METHODS: Sperm recovery procedures were performed in 50 non-mosaic azoospermic Klinefelter patients. The facial hair pattern and the presence of gynaecomastia in men with successful and unsuccessful sperm recovery were compared using Fisher's exact test. The predictive value of clinical parameters such as age, testicular volume, FSH, FSH:LH ratio, testosterone and androgen sensitivity index (LH x testosterone) for successful testicular sperm retrieval was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: In 24 patients (48%) testicular sperm were recovered. Ninety-four per cent of the men in whom sperm was found had a normal facial hair pattern compared to 93% in whom no sperm was recovered (not significant, NS). Seventeen percent of the men with successful testicular sperm extraction had gynaecomastia compared to 31% of the men with failed testicular sperm extraction (NS). The mean testicular volume of the largest testis in patients with sperm found was 4.2 ml compared to 3.6 ml in patients with no sperm found (NS). The mean FSH and testosterone values in patients with sperm recovered were 31.2 IU/l and 3.1 ng/ml versus 40.4 IU/l (P = 0.04) and 3.2 ng/ml (NS) in patients without sperm recovered. All examined clinical and biological parameters failed to predict the outcome of the testicular sperm extraction using ROC curve analysis. CONCLUSION: As in the general population of men with non-obstructive azoospermia, there are currently no clinical parameters predicting successful sperm retrieval in the subpopulation of patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome. (+info)
(48/226) Graves' disease associated with Klinefelter's syndrome.
Klinefelter's syndrome is one of the most common forms of primary hypogonadism and infertility in males. It is characterized by small and firm testes, gynecomastia, azoospermia, and an elevated gonadotropin level. The frequencies of diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, and germ cell neoplasia increases in Klinefelter's syndrome. We report upon a 35 year-old male patient with Graves' disease in association with Klinefelter's syndrome; as confirmed by chromosome analysis. The patient is being treated with antithyroid medication for Graves' disease and by testosterone replacement for Klinefelter's syndrome. (+info)