(25/226) Reversion in expression of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase following cell hybridization.

Hybridization of mutant cell lines deficient in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT; E.C.: 2.4.2.8) from a variety of established rodent sources with HGPRT plus human cells yielded progeny cells which grew in selective medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine (HAT). The same result was obtained when the human cell used was an HGPRT minus transformed line derived from a patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Electrophoretic analysis indicated that all HAT-resistant progeny clones contained an active HGPRT enzyme which was indistinguishable from the wild type enzyme of the corresponding normal rodent cells. In contrast, no HAT-resistant cells have been obtained when the same HGPRT minus rodent cells were subjected to fusion processes in the absence of human cells or when they fused with similarly derived HGPRT minus mutant cells of other rodents. Reversion in expression of the rodent gene for HGPRT was detected in clones which retained one or more human chromosomes and in clones which contained no detectable human chromosomal material. The observed re-expression of rodent HGPRT in HAT-resistant clones suggests that HGPRT plus as well as HGPRT minus human cells contributed a factor which determined the expression of respective rodent structural genes for HGPRT. In contrast, HGPRT minus rodent cells were unable to induce the synthesis or normal HGPRT in the cells derived from the patient with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.  (+info)

(26/226) Outcome of ICSI using fresh and cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa in patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Recently, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of testicular spermatozoa retrieved surgically from patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome resulted in several deliveries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICSI using fresh and cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following informed consent regarding the genetic risks of their potential offspring, mature testicular spermatozoa were found in five out of 12 (42%) patients who underwent testicular sperm extraction, and ICSI was performed while excess tissue was cryopreserved. The mean age of the patients was 28.7 +/- 3.6 (range 23-36 years). Their baseline FSH was elevated (mean 38.3 +/- 11.4; range 22-58 mIU/ml). All patients had small testicles of 2-4 ml in volume. The outcome of ICSI using fresh or cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa during five cycles in each group, was compared. No statistical significant difference was found in the two pronuclear fertilization rate (66 versus 58%), embryo cleavage rate (98 versus 90%) and embryo implantation rate (33.3 versus 21.4%) for fresh or cryopreserved sperm accordingly. The clinical outcome after using fresh testicular sperm included two singleton pregnancies (one delivered and one ongoing) and a triplet pregnancy resulting in a twin delivery (after reduction of an 47,XXY embryo). After using cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained resulting in one delivery of twins and one early spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome of ICSI using cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa of patients with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome is comparable with that following the use of fresh spermatozoa. The genetic implications for the future offspring should be explained to the patients.  (+info)

(27/226) Genetic risk factors in infertile men with severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia.

BACKGROUND: Male infertility due to severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia has been associated with a number of genetic risk factors. METHODS: In this study 150 men from couples requesting ICSI were investigated for genetic abnormalities, such as constitutive chromosome abnormalities, microdeletions of the Y chromosome (AZF region) and mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. RESULTS: Genetic analysis identified 16/150 (10.6%) abnormal karyotypes, 8/150 (5.3%) AZFc deletions and 14/150 (9.3%) CFTR gene mutations. An abnormal karyotype was found both in men with oligozoospermia and azoospermia: 9 men had a sex-chromosomal aneuploidy, 6 translocations were identified and one marker chromosome was found. Y chromosomal microdeletions were mainly associated with male infertility, due to testicular insufficiency. All deletions identified comprised the AZFc region, containing the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene. CFTR gene mutations were commonly seen in men with congenital absence of the vas deferens, but also in 16% of men with azoospermia without any apparent abnormality of the vas deferens. CONCLUSIONS: A genetic abnormality was identified in 36/150 (24%) men with extreme oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Application of ICSI in these couples can result in offspring with an enhanced risk of unbalanced chromosome complement, male infertility due to the transmission of a Y-chromosomal microdeletion, and cystic fibrosis if both partners are CFTR gene mutation carriers. Genetic testing and counselling is clearly indicated for these couples before ICSI is considered.  (+info)

(28/226) Biopsied testis cells of four 47,XXY patients: fluorescence in-situ hybridization and ICSI results.

BACKGROUND: A testis biopsy was performed for four non-mosaic 47,XXY azoospermic patients. Spermatozoa were found in three cases and frozen before ICSI. We analysed the various cells found in the four samples by multicolour fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), to evaluate the meiosis and spermatogenesis possibilities of the 47,XXY and 46,XY testis cell lines, and to estimate aneuploidy rate in the resulting spermatids and spermatozoa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Testis diploid cells (either somatic or premeiotic), meiotic, and post-meiotic haploid germ cells were hybridized with probes for chromosomes X, Y and 18. The only patient with no spermatozoa had a homogeneous diploid XXY constitution in the testis; the three other patients presented two cell populations (46,XY and 47,XXY) among their diploid testis cells. All the observed pachytene figures were XY; no XXY pachytene figure was found. The aneuploidy rate among post-meiotic cells for chromosomes X,Y and 18 was 6.75% (5/74). This rate was 1.5% (2/133) for control. Three couples underwent ICSI; four attempts were made, one healthy baby was born. CONCLUSION: FISH results suggest that only 46,XY cells can undergo meiosis.  (+info)

(29/226) A high predictive value of the first testicular fine needle aspiration in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia for sperm recovery at the subsequent attempt.

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study, which included 51 men with non-obstructive azoospermia, was to evaluate the predictive value of the results of the first sperm recovery attempt on the probability for sperm recovery in a second attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A positive testicular fine needle aspiration (TEFNA) was defined as the recovery of any number of mature sperm. At the first and second TEFNA attempts, mature sperm were recovered in 33 (64.7%) and 25 (49%) of 51 patients respectively. In 23 of the 33 (69.7%) patients with a positive first TEFNA, sperm were recovered at both attempts, whereas in only two of 18 (11.1%) with a negative first TEFNA, sperm were recovered at the second attempt. Our analysis revealed a high predictive value of the first TEFNA for sperm recovery at the subsequent attempt, with a mean positive predictive value of 69.7%, with the highest probability being 90.9% in hypospermatogenesis, 72.7% in Sertoli cell-only pattern, 75% in tubular hyalinization, and the lowest being 28.6% in maturation arrest. The mean negative predictive value was 88.9%, which was high in all categories (80% in Sertoli cell-only pattern and 100% in maturation arrest and tubular hyalinization). CONCLUSION: A second TEFNA attempt should be offered to all non-obstructive azoospermic patients with a positive first TEFNA. Patients with a negative first TEFNA may undergo a repeated attempt, but a donor sperm back-up is strongly advised.  (+info)

(30/226) Klinefelter's syndrome associated with a D/D translocation.

A case of Klinefelter's syndrome and a simultaneous familial D/D translocation is described. The clinical, endocrine, and psychiatric features were typical of those found in Klinefelter's syndrome. Other family members showed no obvious abnormality despite presence of the D/D translocation.  (+info)

(31/226) Sperm aneuploidy in fathers of children with paternally and maternally inherited Klinefelter syndrome.

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether frequency of sperm aneuploidy is associated with risk of fathering children with trisomy. METHODS: We recruited 36 families with a boy with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), interviewed the fathers about their exposures and medical history, received a semen sample from each father, and collected blood samples from the mother, father and child. We applied a multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridization assay to compare the frequencies of sperm carrying XY aneuploidy and disomies X, Y and 21 in fathers of maternally and paternally inherited KS cases. RESULTS: Inheritance of the extra X chromosome was paternal in 10 and maternal in 26 families. Fathers of paternal KS cases produced higher frequencies of XY sperm (P = 0.02) than fathers of maternal KS cases. After controlling for age, the major confounding variable, the difference between the two groups was no longer significant (P less-than-or-equal 0.2). Also, there were no significant differences between the parental origin groups for disomy X, Y or 21. CONCLUSIONS: Men who fathered a child with a Klinefelter syndrome produced higher frequencies of XY sperm aneuploidy, which is explained, in part, by both paternal age and parent of origin.  (+info)

(32/226) Morphometric and cytogenetic characteristics of testicular germ cells and Sertoli cell secretory function in men with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Klinefelter's syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in infertile men. In this study, the chromosomes of round spermatids and spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes from men with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome were examined, together with the Sertoli cell secretory function and sperm morphometry. METHODS: Twenty-four men with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome and nine men with obstructive azoospermia underwent therapeutic testicular biopsy. When spermatozoa in the final filtrate were present, they were processed for sperm morphometry or ICSI. Sperm morphometry was evaluated by the maximal length and width of the sperm head, the length of the midpiece and the ratio of the acrosomal region to the total surface area of the head. When round spermatids were present, they were processed for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). FISH was also applied to fragments of seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cell secretory function was measured by the amount of androgen binding protein (ABP) secreted in vitro. RESULTS: More than 93% of the evaluated round spermatids were normal. The proportions of 24,XY and of 24,XX round spermatids to the total number were significantly larger in men with Klinefelter's syndrome than in obstructed azoospermic men. Men with Klinefelter's syndrome who had spermatozoa in their testicular tissue (n = 12) were positive for both 46,XY and 47,XXY spermatogonia in their seminiferous tubules. In contrast, men with Klinefelter's syndrome without spermatozoa in their testicular tissue (n = 12) were positive for 47,XXY spermatogonia but negative for 46,XY spermatogonia in their seminiferous tubules. ABP profiles were significantly smaller in men with Klinefelter's syndrome who were negative for spermatozoa compared with men who were positive. Four pregnancies were achieved and five healthy babies were born. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that few 46,XXY spermatogonia undergo meiosis with an XX pairing and a Y univalent type of pairing. Hyperhaploid round spermatids (24,XY and 24,XX) may be produced by meiosis of 47,XXY spermatogonia. Men with Klinefelter's syndrome who are negative for testicular spermatozoa have a greater degree of Sertoli cell secretory dysfunction compared with men with Klinefelter's syndrome who are positive for spermatozoa. There are several defects in sperm morphometry with functional significance in men with Klinefelter's syndrome.  (+info)