(17/226) What parents are told after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality: interview and questionnaire study.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome anomaly is first communicated to parents. DESIGN: Health professionals were interviewed by telephone and the conversation was taped; parents were sent questionnaires at 1 month after diagnosis and those who responded were sent another at 6 months. PARTICIPANTS: 29 health professionals who had recently informed parents that a sex chromosome anomaly had been identified in an apparently anatomically normal, viable fetus. 23 mothers and partners who had been informed of such a diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health professionals' knowledge about sex chromosome anomalies and parents' responses to information provided by health professionals. RESULTS: Analysis of the telephone interviews identified great variation in what different healthcare professionals know, think, and say about the same sex chromosome anomaly. The small numbers and the low response rate for the questionnaire (39% for women and 30% for men) meant that statistical analysis was not appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential for obstetric units to have an established protocol for giving results and for all staff who communicate results to parents to have accurate, up to date information about the condition identified.  (+info)

(18/226) Quantitative and qualitative changes in serum luteinizing hormone after injectable testosterone undecanoate treatment in hypogonadal men.

AIM: To clarify the immuno-active LH (i-LH) and bioactive LH (b-LH) responses and qualitative changes in the circulating LH to testosterone undecanoate (TU) injection. METHODS: Eight men with Klinefelter's syndrome were recruited for the study. They received crossover injections of TU at doses of 500 and 1000 mg. Serum i-LH and b-LH levels before and at various time intervals after TU injection were measured and the serum i-LH, b-LH, b-LH/i-LH (B/I) and testosterone/sex hormone-binding globulin (T/SHBG) ratio in LH-responders and LH non-responders were compared. RESULTS: A parallel suppression of serum i-LH and b-LH was consistent with their overall high correlation between each other (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). Mean serum i-FSH levels were decreased by TU injection at both doses without dose-response effects. LH-responders had lower baseline serum i-LH and b-LH, and higher E2 levels and T/SHBG ratio. There was a quantitative change in serum LH as induced by TU without qualitative change within LH-responders os LH-non-responders. CONCLUSION: A high loading dose (1000 mg) of TU is important for the initial suppression of LH. With the lower dose (500 mg), repeated injections will be required to attain such LH suppression for the purpose of fertility regulation. The lower baseline serum i-LH level may be an intrinsic characteristic of LH-responders.  (+info)

(19/226) Meiotic behaviour of the sex chromosomes in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY, mosaic 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY) assessed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

Meiotic studies using multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome painting were carried out in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY; 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY). In the two patients with Klinefelter syndrome, although variable percentages of XXY cells (88.5 and 28.3%) could be found in the pre-meiotic stages, none of the abnormal cells entered meiosis, and all pachytenes were XY. However, the abnormal testicular environment of these patients probably resulted in meiotic I non-disjunction, and a certain proportion of post-reductional cells were XY (18.3 and 1.7%). The fact that none of the spermatozoa were XY also suggests the existence of an arrest at the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level. In the XYY patient, most (95.9%) premeiotic cells were XYY. The percentage of XYY pachytenes was 57.9%. The sex chromosomes were either in close proximity (XYY) or the X chromosome was separated from the two Ys (X + YY). A high proportion (42.1%) of post-reductional germ cells were XY. However, only 0.11% of spermatozoa were disomic for the sex chromosomes. In this case, the data suggest the existence of an arrest of the abnormal cells at the primary and the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level, giving rise to the continuous elimination of abnormal cells in the germ-cell line along spermatogenesis. The fact that the proportion of diploid spermatozoa was only increased in one of the three cases (XXY) is also suggestive of an arrest of the abnormal cell lines in these patients. The two apparently non-mosaic patients were, in fact, germ-cell mosaics. This suggests that the cytogenetic criteria used to define non-mosaic patients may be inadequate; thus, the risk of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in apparently non-mosaics may be lower than expected.  (+info)

(20/226) Mutation screening and CAG repeat length analysis of the androgen receptor gene in Klinefelter's syndrome patients with and without spermatogenesis.

BACKGROUND: Mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene give rise to a wide array of phenotypic abnormalities. A systematic analysis of the AR gene in patients with 47,XXY has not previously been performed. METHODS: Mutations of the AR gene and expansion of the CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene were studied in 13 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome either with (n = 1) or without (n = 12) spermatogenesis. RESULTS: No abnormalities in the AR gene were detected by single strand conformational polymorphism analysis. The CAG lengths ranged from 17 to 27 (mean +/- SD 22.8 +/- 3.3, median 23) for Klinefelter patients or from 17 to 28 (mean +/- SD 23.2 +/- 2.6, median 23) for control subjects. X-inactivation analysis for the methylation status of the AR gene was performed in seven patients who were heterozygous for CAG repeats of different length, showing that the longer CAG repeat alleles underwent random but more frequent inactivation in five patients and skewed inactivation in two. CONCLUSIONS: An AR gene abnormality does not constitute an important factor for impaired spermatogenesis in patients with Klinefelter's syndrome.  (+info)

(21/226) Birth of a healthy girl after ICSI with ejaculated spermatozoa from a man with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome.

Klinefelter's syndrome is a major contributor to male infertility. Recent reports of births after ICSI with especially testicular spermatozoa from infertile men with this syndrome are promising. The birth of a healthy girl after ICSI treatment with ejaculated spermatozoa from a man with non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome is reported. The non-mosaic karyotype was confirmed by chromosome analysis of both peripheral blood leukocytes and fibroblasts from a skin biopsy. In conclusion, in a very few cases, men with apparently non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome have ejaculated spermatozoa that can result in a birth of a healthy child following ICSI.  (+info)

(22/226) Frequency of XY sperm increases with age in fathers of boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

With increasing availability of drugs for impotence and advanced reproductive technologies for the treatment of subfertility, more men are fathering children at advanced ages. We conducted a study of the chromosomal content of sperm of healthy men aged 24-57 years to (a) determine whether father's age was associated with increasing frequencies of aneuploid sperm including XY, disomy X, disomy Y, disomy 21, and sperm diploidy, and (b) examine the association between the frequencies of disomy 21 and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies. The study group consisted of 38 fathers of boys with Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) recruited nationwide, and sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor X-Y-21 sperm FISH ( approximately 10,000 sperm per donor). Paternal age was significantly correlated with the sex ratio of sperm (Y/X; P=.006) and with the frequency of XY sperm (P=.02), with a clear trend with age by decades (P<.006). Compared with fathers in their 20s (who had an average frequency of 7.5 XY sperm per 10,000), the frequencies of XY sperm were 10% higher among fathers in their 30s, 31% higher among those in their 40s, and 160% higher among those in their 50s (95% CI 69%-300%). However, there was no evidence for age effects on frequencies of sperm carrying nullisomy sex; disomies X, Y, or 21; or meiosis I or II diploidies. The frequencies of disomy 21 sperm were significantly associated with sex-chromosomal aneuploidy (P=.04)-in particular, with disomy X (P=.004), but disomy 21 sperm did not preferentially carry either sex chromosome. These findings suggest that older fathers produce higher frequencies of XY sperm, which may place them at higher risk of fathering boys with Klinefelter syndrome, and that age effects on sperm aneuploidy are chromosome specific.  (+info)

(23/226) Survival of male patients with incontinentia pigmenti carrying a lethal mutation can be explained by somatic mosaicism or Klinefelter syndrome.

Incontinentia pigmenti (IP), or "Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome," is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of skin, teeth, hair, and eyes; skewed X-inactivation; and recurrent miscarriages of male fetuses. IP results from mutations in the gene for NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO), with deletion of exons 4-10 of NEMO accounting for >80% of new mutations. Male fetuses inheriting this mutation and other "null" mutations of NEMO usually die in utero. Less deleterious mutations can result in survival of males subjects, but with ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency. Male patients with skin, dental, and ocular abnormalities typical of those seen in female patients with IP (without immunodeficiency) are rare. We investigated four male patients with clinical hallmarks of IP. All four were found to carry the deletion normally associated with male lethality in utero. Survival in one patient is explained by a 47,XXY karyotype and skewed X inactivation. Three other patients possess a normal 46,XY karyotype. We demonstrate that these patients have both wild-type and deleted copies of the NEMO gene and are therefore mosaic for the common mutation. Therefore, the repeat-mediated rearrangement leading to the common deletion does not require meiotic division. Hypomorphic alleles, a 47,XXY karyotype, and somatic mosaicism therefore represent three mechanisms for survival of males carrying a NEMO mutation.  (+info)

(24/226) Pregnancy achieved following ICSI from a man with Klinefelter's syndrome and spinal cord injury.

Klinefelter's syndrome and spinal cord injury are major causes of male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a relatively new method of assisted reproduction. A testicular biopsy was obtained from a patient with the double complications of non-mosaic 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome and spinal cord damage, and motile spermatozoa were collected. ICSI was then performed. Of the four sperm-injected oocytes, three became fertilized and cleaved. Two embryos were implanted, resulting in a single pregnancy with visible evidence of a heartbeat appearing at 6 weeks gestation. The pregnancy is now entering its 20th week. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pregnancy resulting from the sperm of a patient with double complications.  (+info)