(25/226) Immune host response to corneal grafts sensitized to herpes simplex virus.
Experiments were performed to study the fate of corneal grafts sensitized to herpes antigens when grafted to HSV-sensitized hosts. Nonsensitized grafts in systemically sensitized hosts remained clear, whereas all locally sensitized grafts in systemically sensitized hosts became opaque within ten days. The stroma showed severe lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration and neovascularization. One-half of the corneas from systemically sensitized hosts grafted to eyes previously infected opacified in an accelerated manner. Round cells were found in the stroma and endothelium. The histological reaction in both groups was similar to that found in the immune graft reaction even though the clinical picture was not typical (peripheral and progressive edema with a rejection line). The accelerated reaction was probably related to the presence of virus antigens in graft stroma and subepithelial areas of the graft. The significance of HSV-sensitized donor tissue grafted onto HSV-sensitized hosts is discussed because of its possible implication in tissue transplantation. (+info)
(26/226) Canine herpes-induced retinal dysplasia and associated ocular anomalies.
Thirty-eight newborn Beagle puppies from eight litters of a specific pathogen-free colony maintained in isolation were inoculated with canine herpesvirus. Pups were killed between one and 30 days after inoculation. Histopathologic studies were carried out on the eyes and other tissues in conjunction with fluorescent antibody and viral isolation studies. Evidence of ocular inflammation manifested by panuveitis with the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies was usually seen by the fourth day after infection. Eyes with severe inflammation showed peripheral anterior synechiae, cataract, and keratitis. The presence of the virus was confirmed by viral isolation from ocular tissues and fluorescent antibody studies. Developmental anomalies included retinal dysplasia with fold and tube formation of the neural retina, retardation of retinal maturation, and areas of necrosis and reorganization were seen. The retinal pigment epithelium showed initially patchy depigmentation and vacuolization and, subsequently, folding hypertrophy and duplication as well as areas of widespread atrophy and patchy loss. In some animals ectopic retina was found within cystic spaces of the optic nerve. These experiments confirm the ability of canine herpes infection in neonatal pups to produce severe ocular inflammation with subsequent retinal dysplasia and associated ocular anomalies. (+info)
(27/226) Macrophages are important determinants of acute ocular HSV-1 infection in immunized mice.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of macrophage depletion on herpes simplex virus type (HAV)-1 replication in the eye and on the establishment of latency in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of immunized and ocularly infected mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were immunized with five HSV-1 glycoprotein DNA genes or were sham immunized. The virulent HSV-1 strain KOS was used as a positive vaccine control. Immunized mice were depleted of their macrophages by dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl(2)MDP) injection. After ocular infection with the HSV-1 strain McKrae, virus replication in the eye, blepharitis, corneal scarring, and dermatitis were determined. Finally, the copy numbers of latency-associated transcript (LAT) and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell transcripts in the TGs of surviving mice 30 days after infection were determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Depletion of macrophages in immunized mice increased HSV-1 replication in the eye of infected mice between days 1 and 5 after ocular infection. Depletion of macrophages did not alter the HSV-1-induced death or corneal scarring in immunized mice. Macrophage depletion, however, resulted in increased blepharitis in immunized mice. Finally, macrophage depletion had no effect on the establishment of latency in immunized mice, as the TGs from both depleted and mock-depleted mice were negative for the presence of the LAT transcript. CONCLUSIONS: In immunized mice during primary HSV-1 ocular infection, macrophages play an important role in vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 replication in the eye and blepharitis in infected mice. During the latent stage of HSV-1 infection, however, macrophage depletion failed to have any observable effect on HSV-1 latency in the TGs of infected mice. (+info)
(28/226) The effect of trigeminal nerve and ganglion manipulation on recurrence of ocular herpes simplex in rabbits.
Latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been demonstrated in the trigeminal ganglia of experimentally infected rabbits between episodes of spontaneous ocular recurrence. In three experiments reported here, the normal pattern of recurrence was modified by manipulation of the trigeminal nerve and ganglion. Temporary retrobulbar disruption of trigeminal nerve function in chronically infected animals significantly decreased the number of ocular HSV isolations obtained during the 20 weeks immediately following surgery. Stereotaxic interruption of intracranial trigeminal nerve function prior to initial HSV infection dramatically reduced the incidence of peripheral recurrence of HSV. In chronically infected animals, stereotaxic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion caused a marked increase in positive cultures within 2 days. These studies provide additional evidence for the theory that the reservoir for latent ocular HSV in rabbits is the trigeminal ganglion. Moreover, the studies suggest that the transmission of latent HSV from the trigeminal ganglion to its infectious form in the peripheral tissues involves the trigeminal nerve. We have shown that mechanical and stereotaxic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion is a reliable and rapid means of precipitating peripheral ocular shedding of HSV on command, a finding which should prove most productive in future research. (+info)
(29/226) Mechanisms of protection against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced retinal necrosis by in vitro-activated T lymphocytes.
In BALB/c mice, acute retinal necrosis occurs in the uninoculated eye 8 to 10 days following uniocular anterior chamber inoculation of the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Retinitis in the uninjected eye can be prevented if HSV-1-specific immune effector cells that have been restimulated with virus in vitro are administered intravenously within 1 day of anterior chamber inoculation of virus. We explored further the mechanism of protection afforded by these activated immune effector cells. The results of our studies revealed that optimal protection from retinitis required in vitro restimulation, since infusion of 50 x 10(6) HSV-1-primed but nonrestimulated cells could not protect as well as 10 x 10(6) activated cells. Analysis of both restimulated and nonrestimulated cells showed that only in vitro-restimulated cells were cytotoxic to HSV-1-infected syngeneic target cells. From these studies, we concluded that the ability to kill virus-infected target cells contributed to optimal protection achieved by intravenous administration of activated immune effector cells. Furthermore, T-cell subset depletion of activated immune effector cells demonstrated that both L3T4+ and Lyt-2+ T cells in the transfer inoculum contributed to protection. Additional studies revealed that although the transferred immune effector cells reached the injected eye within 24 h, virus replication in the injected eye was not affected. In the uninjected eye, virus titers were low, consistent with protection of this eye from retinitis. Taken together, the virus recovery results suggest that the interaction of virus with intravenously administered HSV-1-specific immune effector cells which limits virus spread and/or replication of virus probably occurred within the central nervous system and prevented the second wave of virus from entering the uninoculated eye. (+info)
(30/226) Investigation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene expression and DNA synthesis during the establishment of latent infection by an HSV-1 mutant, in1814, that does not replicate in mouse trigeminal ganglia.
In previous studies, the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant, in1814, which lacks the trans-inducing function of Vmw65, did not replicate in the trigeminal ganglia of mice following corneal inoculation but did establish a reactivatable latent infection in the ganglia 12 to 24 h after ocular infection. Since in1814 did not replicate in vivo, the molecular events during the establishment phase of latent HSV-1 infection could be characterized without the complications of concurrent productive viral infection. In comparison to parental HSV-1 strain 17+, the expression of viral immediate early (IE), early and late genes and the levels of viral DNA in the trigeminal ganglia of mice following in1814 infection were greatly reduced. However, accumulation of latency-associated transcripts, a prominent feature of latent HSV-1 infection, occurred in a wild-type fashion. Furthermore, low levels of viral gene expression and an increase in the level of viral DNA in the in1814-infected ganglia were not detected until 1 to 2 days after the establishment of HSV-1 latency. Thus, IE gene expression and replication of viral DNA in the trigeminal ganglia are not prerequisites for the establishment of HSV-1 latency. These results suggest that the pathways leading to productive and latent infections in neurons may diverge at an early stage of the host-HSV-1 interaction and that the level of viral IE gene expression has a key role in determining the outcome of infection. (+info)
(31/226) Ocular herpes simplex virus reactivation in mice latently infected with latency-associated transcript mutants.
A mouse model for ocular reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was modified and used to study the effect of strain difference on the frequency of ocular HSV reactivation. Outbred male NIH white mice were immunized with 1.0 ml of anti-HSV serum with a neutralizing titer of 1:400 24 hr before infection and bilaterally infected at 10(5) plaque-forming units/eye with one of three HSV-1 strains: 17 Syn+, LAT+ (XC-20), or LAT- (X10-13). Latency-associated transcripts (LAT) are produced by strain 17 Syn+ and LAT+ but not by LAT-. The primary infection was monitored by ocular swabbing for HSV. Reactivation was induced by intravenous (i.v.) injection of cyclophosphamide (5 mg) followed 24 hr later by i.v. dexamethasone (0.2 mg). These drugs significantly reduced the white cell count between 0 and 6 days post-administration. The eyes were swabbed for 7 consecutive days to monitor reactivation, and HSV-1 reactivation was induced at the following frequencies in individual eyes: 17 Syn+ (32.5%), LAT+ (18.5%), and LAT- (2.5%) (P less than or equal to 0.002). Co-culture of trigeminal ganglia was done, and random isolates were checked to ascertain their identity. The HSV was recovered from individual trigeminal ganglia at the following frequencies: 17 Syn+ (83%), LAT+ (100%), and LAT- (67%) (P less than or equal to 0.091). These results confirm that the mouse can be used as a reactivation model for ocular HSV infection and that the presence of LAT facilitates reactivation in vivo in the mouse. (+info)
(32/226) Evidence for herpes simplex viral latency in the human cornea.
Patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for prior herpes simplex keratitis (group A) and corneal disease unrelated to herpes simplex (group B) were investigated to assess whether the cornea is a site for herpes simplex viral latency. All patients were seropositive for herpes simplex viral antibody. Virus was isolated from the tear film postoperatively in one patient and on cocultivation from the cornea of another patient. Herpes simplex viral DNA, however, was detected in the corneas of all patients from group A and half of those from group B by means of the polymerase chain reaction and primers to three well separated regions of the viral genome. Three donor corneas had no evidence of herpes simplex viral DNA. Using RNA polymerase chain reaction, we found evidence of a latency associated transcript and also that of a glycoprotein C coding transcript in two corneas, indicating viral replication. Nine corneas had evidence of a latency associated transcript but no glycoprotein C transcript, which suggests that herpes simplex virus may be maintained in a latent state in the corneas of patients with prior herpes simplex keratitis and in some patients with corneal disease unrelated to the herpes simplex virus. (+info)