(1/1552) Involvement of polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 in the regulation of expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase messenger ribonucleic acid-IV in the rat epididymis.
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) mRNA-IV and polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) mRNA are highly expressed in the initial segment of the rat epididymis, and both are regulated by testicular factors. PEA3 protein in rat initial segment nuclear extracts has been shown to bind to a PEA3/Ets binding motif, which is derived from the partially characterized GGT mRNA-IV promoter region. This suggests that PEA3 may be involved in regulating transcription from the rat GGT mRNA-IV gene promoter in the initial segment. Using DNA oligonucleotide primers and DNA sequencing analysis, an approximately 1500-basepair (bp) DNA sequence at the 5' region of the promoter was obtained. Using transient transfection, PEA3 activated transcription of the rat GGT mRNA-IV promoter only in cultured epididymal cells from the rat initial segment, but not in Cos-1 or NRK-52E cells. Promoter deletion analysis indicated that a PEA3/Ets binding motif between nucleotides -22 and -17 is the functional site for PEA3 to activate transcription of GGT promoter IV and that an adjacent Sp1 binding motif is also required to maintain promoter IV activity in epididymal cells. Transcriptional activation of promoter IV was shown to be epididymal cell-specific and PEA3-specific. In addition, PEA3 may act as a weak repressor for transcription of promoter IV, probably using a PEA3/Ets binding motif(s) distal to the transcription start site. A model of how PEA3 is involved in the regulation of transcription of GGT promoter IV in epididymal cells is proposed. (+info)
(2/1552) Immunohistochemical localization of 5-oxo-L-prolinase, an enzyme of the gamma-glutamyl cycle, in porcine brain microvessels.
The immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase in porcine brain at the light microscopic level was performed with an antibody raised against the enzyme purified from pig kidney. The present study reveals the specific expression of 5-oxo-L-prolinase in brain capillaries with an average diameter of 4.1+/-0.9 microm, while larger blood vessels remain unstained. Porcine kidney and skeletal muscle show no endothelial-specific staining with the antibody. In some cases, the asymmetrical staining pattern in cross and longitudinal sections of brain microvessels indicate endothelial- but also pericyte-specific expression. (+info)
(3/1552) Inhibition of the hydrolytic and transpeptidase activities of rat kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase by specific monoclonal antibodies.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the native form of rat kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were isolated by screening hybridomas with rat kidney brush-border membrane vesicles. They were directed against protein rather than sugar epitopes in that each recognized all GGT isoforms. All of them inhibited partially the enzyme activity of GGT. They were specific in that they inhibited the rat enzyme, but not the mouse or human enzyme. Kinetic analyses were carried out with free GGT and GGT-mAb complexes with d-gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide in the presence or absence of maleate, or in the presence or absence of alanine, cysteine, cystine or glycylglycine as gamma-glutamyl acceptors. mAbs 2A10 and 2E9 inhibited the hydrolytic and glutaminase activities of GGT and had little effect on the transpeptidation activity of the enzyme, whereas mAbs 4D7 and 5F10 inhibited transpeptidation, but not hydrolytic or glutaminase activities. mAb 5F10 mimicked the effect of maleate on GGT, in that it inhibited transpeptidation, enhanced the glutaminase activity and increased the affinity of the donor site of GGT for acivicin. Such mAbs may be useful for long-term studies in tissue cultures and in vivo, and for the identification of GGT epitopes that are important for the hydrolytic and transpeptidase activities. (+info)
(4/1552) Fatty liver--an additional and treatable feature of the insulin resistance syndrome.
To test the hypothesis that fatty liver coexists with other metabolic abnormalities of the insulin resistance syndrome, and responds to their amelioration, we prospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with chronically elevated liver enzymes and clinical, ultrasound and histological findings consistent with fatty infiltration of the liver. Most of the patients were overweight or obese (64%) with increased waist circumference which closely relates to visceral fat. Only 10% of the patients had normal glucose tolerance: 44% had diabetes mellitus, 29% impaired glucose tolerance, and 17% were hyperinsulinaemic. The most common dyslipidaemia found was hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL-C (86%). Dietary intervention and follow-up (median 24 months), supplemented by oral hypoglycaemic or lipid-lowering drugs as needed, resulted not only in weight loss (mean 3.7 kg), decreased fasting blood glucose (p < 0.005) and improvement in serum lipid profile (p < 0.02 for both triglycerides or HDL-C) but also in an improvement of serum liver enzymes in 96%, which became normal in more than half of the patients. Thus, fatty liver was strongly associated with many features of the insulin resistance syndrome, and follow-up revealed a high potential for reversibility and a benign course. (+info)
(5/1552) Metabolism of aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides by rat mammary tissue.
We have examined the metabolism of aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides by rat mammary tissue isolated from rats during late pregnancy, peak lactation and late lactation. The rate of hydrolysis depended upon the chemical nature of the aminoacyl-p-nitroanilide compound and the physiological state of the donor animals. Thus, mammary tissue isolated from rats during late pregnancy and peak lactation hydrolysed aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides in the order L-met-p-nitroanilide=L-leu-p-nitroanilide>L-lys-p-nitroanilide>gamma- glu-p-nitroanilide. The order of activity was the same for mammary tissue taken from rats during late lactation except that L-lys-p-nitroanilide was hydrolysed at the same rate as the neutral aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides. Mammary tissue from peak lactating rats also hydrolysed alpha-L-glu-p-nitroanilide and alpha-L-asp-p-nitroanilide but to a lesser extent than the other compounds tested. The anionic aminoacyl-p-nitroanilides were able to trans-stimulate D-aspartate efflux from mammary tissue explants and the perfused mammary gland via the high-affinity anionic amino acid carrier. The clearance of gly-L-phe by the perfused mammary gland was markedly inhibited by L-phe. The results suggest that mammary tissue expresses a variety of dipeptidases at the basolateral aspect of the mammary epithelium which are capable of hydrolysing peptides extracellularly. These enzymes may be important for providing amino acids for milk protein synthesis and/or inactivating signal peptides. (+info)
(6/1552) The induction of GSH synthesis by nanomolar concentrations of NO in endothelial cells: a role for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.
Nitric oxide protects cells from oxidative stress through a number of direct scavenging reactions with free radicals but the effects of nitric oxide on the regulation of antioxidant enzymes are only now emerging. Using bovine aortic endothelial cells as a model, we show that nitric oxide, at physiological rates of production (1-3 nM/s), is capable of inducing the synthesis of glutathione through a mechanism involving gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. This novel nitric oxide signalling pathway is cGMP-independent and we hypothesize that it makes an important contribution to the anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant properties of nitric oxide. (+info)
(7/1552) Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase accelerates tumor growth and increases the resistance of tumors to cisplatin in vivo.
We have shown previously that gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity is essential for the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. In this study we asked whether GGT activity was necessary for the antitumor activity of cisplatin. GGT was transfected into PC3 cells, a human prostate tumor cell line. Two independent GGT-positive cell lines were isolated and characterized. GGT cleaves extracellular glutathione providing the cells with access to additional cysteine. Expression of GGT had no effect on the growth rate of the cells in vitro where the culture medium contains high levels of cysteine. However, when the cells were injected into nude mice the GGT-positive tumors grew at more than twice the rate of the GGT-negative tumors. Weekly treatment with cisplatin was toxic to both GGT-positive and -negative tumors. The GGT-positive tumors were significantly more resistant to the toxicity of cisplatin than the GGT-negative tumors. Therefore, expression of GGT is required for the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, but diminishes the tumor toxicity of the drug. These results indicate that the nephrotoxicity and the tumor toxicity of cisplatin are via two distinct pathways. (+info)
(8/1552) Nordihydroguairetic acid is a potent inhibitor of ferric-nitrilotriacetate-mediated hepatic and renal toxicity, and renal tumour promotion, in mice.
Ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen. In the present study, we report the effect of a potent lignin-derived herbal antioxidant, nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA), against Fe-NTA-mediated tissue toxicity. Fe-NTA (alone) treatment of mice enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 259% in liver and 341% in kidney and increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in DNA to 250% in liver and 324% in kidney compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 138 and 123%, respectively, in liver at a higher dose of 2 mg NDGA/day/animal whereas in kidney the reduction was to 118 and 102%, respectively, compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. In the Fe-NTA (alone)-treated group, a 12% renal tumour incidence was recorded whereas, in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and Fe-NTA-promoted animals, the percentage tumour incidence was increased to 68% as compared with untreated controls. No tumour incidence was recorded in the DEN-initiated, non-promoted group. The administration of NDGA, afforded >80% protection against DEN- and Fe-NTA-mediated renal tissue injury in vivo. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation to 170 and 205% of saline-treated controls, respectively, and hydrogen peroxide generation by >2.5-fold in both tissues accompanied by a 51 and 21% decrease in the level of glutathione and 35-48 and 35-50% decrease in the activities of glutathione-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney, respectively. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving a pre-treatment of NDGA. Our data show that NDGA can abrogate the toxic and tumour-promoting effects of Fe-NTA in liver and kidney of mice and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and tumorigenesis. (+info)