(1/206) Kinetic and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of xylose metabolism by recombinant Zymomonas mobilis ZM4(pZB5).
The specific rates of growth, substrate utilization, and ethanol production as well as yields of biomass and ethanol production on xylose for the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis ZM4(pZB5) were shown to be much less than those on glucose or glucose-xylose mixtures. Typical fermentations with ZM4(pZB5) growing on glucose-xylose mixtures followed two-phase growth kinetics with the initial uptakes of glucose and xylose being followed by slower growth and metabolic uncoupling on xylose after glucose depletion. The reductions in rates and yields from xylose metabolism were considered in the present investigation and may be due to a number of factors, including the following: (i) the increased metabolic burden from maintenance of plasmid-related functions, (ii) the production of by-products identified as xylitol, acetate, lactate, acetoin, and dihydroxyacetone by (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, (iii) growth inhibition due to xylitol by the putative inhibitory compound xylitol phosphate, and (iv) the less energized state of ZM4(pZB5). In vivo (31)P-NMR studies have established that the levels of NTP and UDP sugars on xylose were less than those on glucose, and this energy limitation is likely to restrict the growth of the recombinant strain on xylose media. (+info)
(2/206) Fructose operon mutants of Spiroplasma citri.
Fructose-negative mutants of Spiroplasma citri wild-type strain GII-3 were selected by two methods. The first method is based on the selection of spontaneous xylitol-resistant mutants, xylitol being a toxic fructose analogue. Five such mutants were obtained, but only one, xyl3, was unable to use fructose and had no phosphoenolpuryvate:fructose phosphotransferase system (fructose-PTS) activity. Amplification and sequencing of the fructose permease gene of mutant xyl3 revealed the presence of an adenylic insertion leading to a truncated permease. The second method is based on inactivation of fruA and/or fruK by homologous recombination involving one crossing-over between the chromosomal genes and inactivated genes carried by replicative plasmids. Fructose-negative mutants were obtained at a frequency of about 10%. Fructose-PTS activity and 1-phosphofructokinase activity were not detected in four representative mutants that were characterized (H31, H45, E38 and E53). In strain H31, Southern blot analysis and PCR showed that the result of homologous recombination was, as expected, the presence in the chromosome of two mutated fruA-fruK copies with the plasmid sequence in between. Only the mutated copy, under control of the fructose operon promoter, was transcribed. This work describes for the first time the use of two methods to obtain fructose-auxotrophic mutants of S. citri. The method involving homologous recombination is a general procedure for gene disruption in S. citri. (+info)
(3/206) Genes for ribitol and D-arabitol catabolism in Escherichia coli: their loci in C strains and absence in K-12 and B strains.
Escherichia coli C strains can grow at the expense of the two natural pentitols ribitol and D-arabitol, sugar alcohols previously thought not to be utilized by E. coli. E. coli strains K-12 and B cannot utilize either compound. The genetic loci responsible for pentitol catabolism in E. coli C, designated rtl and atl, are separate and closely linked. Each lies between metG and his and is highly co-transducible with metG and with a P2 prophage attachment site. rtl and atl readily can be transduced into E. coli K-12 or B strains, in which they integrate at, or very near, their E. coli C location. Transduction also can be used to insert rtl and atl into certain E. coli K-12 F' plasmids. No recombination between E. coli C strains and either K-12 or B strains occurs within the rtl-atl genetic region after interstrain conjugations or transductions. No cryptic rtl or atl genes in K-12 or B strains can be detected by complementation, recombination, or mutagenesis. These results are consistent with the view that the rtl-atl portion of the E. coli C chromosome has no counterpart in E. coli K-12 or B and may have been obtained from an extrageneric source. Detailed biochemical and genetic comparisons of penitol utilization in E. coli and Klebsiella aerogenes are in progress. The ability to catabolize xylitol is conferred upon E. coli C strains by a mutation at or adjacent to the rtl locus, whereas in E. coli K-12 or B strains harboring rtl an additional mutation at a separate locus is required for xylitol utilization. (+info)
(4/206) The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing.
The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface. (+info)
(5/206) Fructose utilization and phytopathogenicity of Spiroplasma citri.
Spiroplasma citri is a plant-pathogenic mollicute. Recently, the so-called nonphytopathogenic S. citri mutant GMT 553 was obtained by insertion of transposon Tn4001 into the first gene of the fructose operon. Additional fructose operon mutants were produced either by gene disruption or selection of spontaneous xylitol-resistant strains. The behavior of these spiroplasma mutants in the periwinkle plants has been studied. Plants infected via leafhoppers with the wild-type strain GII-3 began to show symptoms during the first week following the insect-transmission period, and the symptoms rapidly became severe. With the fructose operon mutants, symptoms appeared only during the fourth week and remained mild, except when reversion to a fructose+ phenotype occurred. In this case, the fructose+ revertants quickly overtook the fructose- mutants and the symptoms soon became severe. When mutant GMT 553 was complemented with the fructose operon genes that restore fructose utilization, severe pathogenicity, similar to that of the wild-type strain, was also restored. Finally, plants infected with the wild-type strain and grown at 23 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C showed late symptoms, but these rapidly became severe. These results are discussed in light of the role of fructose in plants. Fructose utilization by the spiroplasmas could impair sucrose loading into the sieve tubes by the companion cells and result in accumulation of carbohydrates in source leaves and depletion of carbon sources in sink tissues. (+info)
(6/206) Effect of xylitol on growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of fructose and sorbitol.
Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally eliminated in the presence of 1, 2.5, or 5% fructose but not in the presence of 1 or 5% glucose, 1% galactose, or 1% sucrose. This finding implies that xylitol-induced inhibition of pneumococcal growth is mediated via the fructose phosphotransferase system in a way similar to that in which mutans group streptococcal growth is inhibited. The addition of sorbitol at concentrations of 1, 2.5, or 5% to the growth medium did not affect the growth of pneumococci and neither inhibited nor enhanced the xylitol-induced growth impairment. Thus, it seems that xylitol is the only commercially used sugar substitute proven to have an antimicrobial effect on pneumococci. (+info)
(7/206) Membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase in acetic acid bacteria catalyzes L-ribulose formation and NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase is independent of the oxidative fermentation.
To identify the enzyme responsible for pentitol oxidation by acetic acid bacteria, two different ribitol oxidizing enzymes, one in the cytosolic fraction of NAD(P)-dependent and the other in the membrane fraction of NAD(P)-independent enzymes, were examined with respect to oxidative fermentation. The cytoplasmic NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) was crystallized from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 12528 and found to be an enzyme having 100 kDa of molecular mass and 5 s as the sedimentation constant, composed of four identical subunits of 25 kDa. The enzyme catalyzed a shuttle reversible oxidoreduction between ribitol and D-ribulose in the presence of NAD and NADH, respectively. Xylitol and L-arabitol were well oxidized by the enzyme with reaction rates comparable to ribitol oxidation. D-Ribulose, L-ribulose, and L-xylulose were well reduced by the enzyme in the presence of NADH as cosubstrates. The optimum pH of pentitol oxidation was found at alkaline pH such as 9.5-10.5 and ketopentose reduction was found at pH 6.0. NAD-Dependent ribitol dehydrogenase seemed to be specific to oxidoreduction between pentitols and ketopentoses and D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were not oxidized by this enzyme. However, no D-ribulose accumulation was observed outside the cells during the growth of the organism on ribitol. L-Ribulose was accumulated in the culture medium instead, as the direct oxidation product catalyzed by a membrane-bound NAD(P)-independent ribitol dehydrogenase. Thus, the physiological role of NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase was accounted to catalyze ribitol oxidation to D-ribulose in cytoplasm, taking D-ribulose to the pentose phosphate pathway after being phosphorylated. L-Ribulose outside the cells would be incorporated into the cytoplasm in several ways when need for carbon and energy sources made it necessary to use L-ribulose for their survival. From a series of simple experiments, membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase was concluded to be the enzyme responsible for L-ribulose production in oxidative fermentation by acetic acid bacteria. (+info)
(8/206) The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence.
The role of sugar substitutes such as xylitol and sorbitol in the prevention of dental caries has been investigated in several clinical studies. The purpose of this report is to review the current published evidence regarding the relationship between sugar substitutes and dental caries. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE and included studies published from 1966 to 2001. Studies that included human subjects and were published in English were included in this review. A total of fourteen clinical studies were reviewed that evaluated the effect of sorbitol or xylitol or the combination of both sugar substitutes on the incidence of dental caries. Most of the reports were of studies conducted with children outside of the United States. These studies demonstrated a consistent decrease in dental caries, ranging from 30 to 60 percent, among subjects using sugar substitutes as compared to subjects in a control group. These caries rate reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol or sorbitol as the sugar substitute in chewing gum or toothpaste. The highest caries reductions were observed in subjects using xylitol. These findings suggest that the replacement of sucrose with sorbitol and xylitol may significantly decrease the incidence of dental caries. (+info)