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(1/473) Conformational changes in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor modulate the interaction of the A1 domain with platelet glycoprotein Ib.

Bitiscetin has recently been shown to induce von Willebrand factor (vWF)-dependent aggregation of fixed platelets (Hamako J, et al, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:273, 1996). We have purified bitiscetin from Bitis arietans venom and investigated the mechanism whereby it promotes a form of vWF that is reactive with platelets. In the presence of bitiscetin, vWF binds to platelets in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. The binding of vWF to platelets involves glycoprotein (GP) Ib because it was totally blocked by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 6D1 directed towards the vWF-binding site of GPIb. The binding also involves the GPIb-binding site of vWF located on the A1 domain because it was inhibited by MoAb to vWF whose epitopes are within this domain and that block binding of vWF to platelets induced by ristocetin or botrocetin. However, in contrast to ristocetin or botrocetin, the binding site of bitiscetin does not reside within the A1 domain but within the A3 domain of vWF. Thus, among a series of vWF fragments, 125I-bitiscetin only binds to those that overlap the A3 domain, ie, SpIII (amino acid [aa] 1-1365), SpI (aa 911-1365), and rvWF-A3 domain (aa 920-1111). It does not bind to SpII corresponding to the C-terminal part of vWF subunit (aa 1366-2050) nor to the 39/34/kD dispase species (aa 480-718) or T116 (aa 449-728) overlapping the A1 domain. In addition, bitiscetin that does not bind to DeltaA3-rvWF (deleted between aa 910-1113) has no binding site ouside the A3 domain. The localization of the binding site of bitiscetin within the A3 domain was further supported by showing that MoAb to vWF, which are specific for this domain and block the interaction between vWF and collagen, are potent inhibitors of the binding of bitiscetin to vWF and consequently of the bitiscetin-induced binding of vWF to platelets. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that an interaction between the A1 and A3 domains exists that may play a role in the function of vWF by regulating the ability of the A1 domain to bind to platelet GPIb.  (+info)

(2/473) Endothelin receptor expression and pharmacology in human saphenous vein graft.

1. We have investigated the expression and pharmacology of endothelin (ET) receptors in human aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. 2. Subtype-selective ligands were used to autoradiographically identify ET(A) ([125I]-PD151242) and ET(B)([125I]-BQ3020) receptors. In graft saphenous vein ETA receptors predominated in the media, with few ET(B) receptors identified. Neither subtype was detected in the thickened neointima. 3. The ratio of medial ET(A):ET(B) receptors was 75%: 25% in both graft and control saphenous vein. 4. ET-1 contracted control (EC50 2.9 nM) and graft (EC50 4.5 nM) saphenous vein more potently than diseased coronary artery (EC50 25.5 nM). 5. In all three blood vessels ET-1 was 100 times more potent than ET-3 and three times more potent than sarafotoxin 6b (S6b). Little or no response was obtained in any vessel with the ET(B) agonist sarafotoxin 6c (S6c). 6. The ET(A) antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) blocked ET-1 responses in all three vessels with pKb values of approximately 8.0. 7. For individual graft veins the EC50 value for ET-1 and 'age' of graft in years showed a significant negative correlation. 8. In conclusion there is no alteration in ET receptor expression in the media of saphenous veins grafted into the coronary circulation compared to control veins. ETA receptors predominantly mediate the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 in graft vein, with no apparent up-regulation of ET(B) receptors. The sensitivity of the graft vein to ET-1 increased with graft 'age', suggesting that these vessels may be particularly vulnerable to the increased plasma ET levels that are detected in patients with cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(3/473) A novel high molecular weight fibrinogenase from the venom of Bitis arietans.

A fibrinogenase (Ba100) with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa under non-reducing conditions and a pI of 5.4 was purified from the venom of the African puff adder (Bitis arietans) by fibrinogen affinity chromatography. Under reducing conditions the protease dissociates into subunits of 21 kDa and 16 kDa. N-Terminal amino acid sequencing showed these two chains to have 66.7% homology and homology to C-type lectins. The fibrinogenase activity of Ba100 cleaves the Aalpha and Bbeta chain of fibrinogen rendering the molecule unable to polymerise into fibrin clots. Ba100 inhibited platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma, and clot formation in whole blood, in a concentration dependent manner.  (+info)

(4/473) Pharmacological and molecular biological evidence for ETA endothelin receptor subtype mediating mechanical responses in the detrusor smooth muscle of the human urinary bladder.

The aim of this study was to characterize endothelin receptor subtypes of the detrusor muscle of the human urinary bladder. The receptor subtypes mediating endothelin (ET)-1-induced activity in the human detrusor smooth muscles have been characterized using isometric contraction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ET-1 (a non-selective ET receptor agonist; 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) exhibited concentration-dependent contractions in human urinary bladder with a plateau at concentrations above 3x10(-7) M. Neither IRL1620 nor sarafotoxin S6c (both ETB-selective agonists; 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) elicited contractile activity in the human urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle. FR139317 (an ETA-selective antagonist; 10(-7) M to 10(-5) M) produced a marked shift to the right of the ET-1 concentration-response curve in human urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle (from the Schild plot TpA2=7.96; slope=0.95). In contrast, RES701-1 (an ETB-selective antagonist; 10(-7) M to 10(-5) M) had no effect on the ET-1 concentration-response curve. RT-PCR revealed positive amplification of ETA receptor mRNA fragment, but not ETB. These results indicate that the ET-1-induced contractile effects of urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle seem to be mediated mainly by the ETA receptor, not by the ETB receptor.  (+info)

(5/473) Identification and characterization of endothelial glycoprotein Ib using viper venom proteins modulating cell adhesion.

The expression and function of a glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) complex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is still a matter of controversy. We characterized HUVEC GPIb using viper venom proteins: alboaggregins A and B, echicetin, botrocetin, and echistatin. Echicetin is an antagonist, and alboaggregins act as agonists of the platelet GPIb complex. Botrocetin is a venom protein that alters von Willebrand factor (vWF) conformation and increases its binding affinity for the GPIb complex. Echistatin is a disintegrin that blocks alphavbeta3. Echistatin, but not echicetin, inhibited the adhesion to vWF of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with alphavbeta3. We found the following: (1) Binding of monoclonal antibodies against GPIbalpha to HUVECs was moderately increased after stimulation with cytokines and phorbol ester. Echicetin demonstrated an inhibitory effect. (2) Both echicetin and echistatin, an alphavbeta3 antagonist, inhibited the adhesion of HUVECs to immobilized vWF in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was additive when both proteins were used together. (3) Botrocetin potentiated the adhesion of HUVECs to vWF, and this effect was completely abolished by echicetin, but not by echistatin. (4) CHO cells expressing GPIbalphabeta/IX adhered to vWF (in the presence of botrocetin) and to alboaggregins; GPIbalpha was required for this reaction. Echicetin, but not echistatin, inhibited the adhesion of cells transfected with GPIbalphabeta/IX to immobilized vWF. (5) HUVECs adhered strongly to immobilized vWF and alboaggregins with extensive spreading, which was inhibited by LJ1b1, a monoclonal antibody against GPIb. The purified alphavbeta3 receptor did not interact with the alboaggregins, thereby excluding the contribution of alphavbeta3 in inducing HUVEC spreading on alboaggregins. In conclusion, our data confirm the presence of a functional GPIb complex expressed on HUVECs in low density. This complex may mediate HUVEC adhesion and spreading on immobilized vWF and alboaggregins.  (+info)

(6/473) EC3, a novel heterodimeric disintegrin from Echis carinatus venom, inhibits alpha4 and alpha5 integrins in an RGD-independent manner.

EC3, a heterodimeric disintegrin (Mr = 14,762) isolated from Echis carinatus venom is a potent antagonist of alpha4 integrins. Two subunits called EC3A and EC3B were isolated from reduced and alkylated EC3 by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Each subunit contained 67 residues, including 10 cysteines, and displayed a high degree of homology to each other and to other disintegrins. EC3 inhibited adhesion of cells expressing alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins to natural ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MadCAM-1) with IC50 = 6-30 nM, adhesion of K562 cells (alpha5beta1) to fibronectin with IC50 = 150 nM, and adhesion of alphaIIbbeta3 Chinese hamster ovary cells to fibrinogen with IC50 = 500 nM; it did not inhibit adhesion of alphavbeta3 Chinese hamster ovary cells to vitronectin. Ethylpyridylethylated EC3B inhibited adhesion of Jurkat cells to immobilized VCAM-1 (IC50 = 6 microM), whereas EC3A was inactive in this system. The MLDG motif appeared to be essential for activity of EC3B. Linear MLDG peptide inhibited the adhesion of Jurkat to VCAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 4 mM), whereas RGDS peptide was not active at the same concentration. MLDG partially inhibited adhesion of K562 cells to fibronectin (5-10 mM) in contrast to RGDS peptide (IC50 = 3 mM), inhibiting completely at 10 mM.  (+info)

(7/473) Mechanisms of endothelin-induced venoconstriction in isolated guinea pig mesentery.

In the present study, endothelin (ET) agonists and receptor selective antagonists were used to characterize ET receptors mediating constriction in guinea pig mesenteric veins (250-300 micrometers diameter) in vitro. The contribution of ET-evoked vasodilator release to venous tone was also explored. Computer-assisted video microscopy was used to monitor vein diameter. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin-3 (ET-3), and sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) produced sustained concentration-dependent contractions with a rank order agonist potency of ET-1 = S6c > ET-3. Indomethacin (1 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) enhanced ET-1 and S6c responses. The ETA selective antagonists BQ-610 (100 nM) and PD156707 (10 nM) shifted ET-1 concentration-response curves rightward and decreased maximal ET-1 responses, without changing S6c responses. The ETB selective antagonist BQ-788 (100 nM) shifted S6c responses rightward but produced no change in ET-1 responses. Combined application of BQ-788 and BQ-610 or BQ-788 and PD 156707 produced a rightward shift in ET-1 responses that was greater than shifts produced by BQ-610 or PD 156707 alone. In conclusion, smooth muscle in guinea pig mesenteric veins expresses ETA and ETB receptors coupled to contractile mechanisms. Activation of endothelial ETB receptors results in release of vasodilators, primarily nitric oxide.  (+info)

(8/473) Typical endothelin ETA receptors mediate atypical endothelin-1-induced contractions in sheep isolated tracheal smooth muscle.

Contraction of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle induced by the endothelin/sarafotoxin family of peptides frequently does not readily fit into the current classification criteria for ETA and ETB receptors, raising the possibility of additional atypical receptors. In the current study, isometric tension recording and radioligand binding techniques were used to characterize the ETA receptor population in sheep isolated tracheal smooth muscle. Endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b induced similar concentration-dependent contractions, although endothelin-1 was 2.6-fold more potent (P <.05, n = 15-18). The ETA receptor-selective antagonists BQ-123 and FR139317 caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractions induced by endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b, but both antagonists were significantly less potent in inhibiting contractions induced by endothelin-1 than sarafotoxin S6b. For example, 0.03 microM FR139317 shifted the endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin S6b concentration-effect curves to the right by 1.8- and 8.3-fold, respectively (P <.01, n = 6-8). Although the observed agonist dependence of antagonist potency may indicate the presence of atypical ETA receptors, competition binding studies using 125I-endothelin-1 and 125-I-sarafotoxin S6b identified only a single population of BQ-123- and sarafotoxin S6b-sensitive ETA receptors. Additional association-, dissociation-, and saturation-binding studies revealed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding to these ETA receptors was pseudoirreversible, whereas 125I-sarafotoxin S6b binding was readily reversible. Thus, marked differences in the kinetic profiles of ETA receptor binding to endothelin-1, sarafotoxin S6b, and BQ-123, rather than the existence of another ETA receptor subtype, may explain the stark agonist dependence of antagonist potency observed in contractile studies.  (+info)