(1/1013) Effect of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in the rat aorta.
1. This study sought to evaluate whether the effects of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in rat aortic rings are mediated through the same mechanism. 2. Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with either 17-beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (100 microg kg(-1)) or vehicle for 1 week. 3. The effect of long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment on the responses to cumulative doses of phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and 17-beta-estradiol was determined in aortic rings. In the same rings, the effect of acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol (5 and 10 microM) on the dose response curves for phenylephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine were estimated. The measurements were made in rings with and without intact endothelium. The tone-related basal release of nitric oxide (NO) was measured in rings with intact endothelium. 4. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment reduced the maximum developed contraction to all contracting agents studied. This effect was abolished in endothelium denuded vessels. Acute 17-beta-estradiol treatment also reduced maximal contraction. This effect, however, was independent of the endothelium. 5. Long-term 17-beta-estradiol treatment significantly increased the ability of the rings to dilate in response to acetylcholine whereas acute exposure to 17-beta-estradiol had no effect. The tone-related release of NO was significantly increased after long-term exposure to 17-beta-estradiol. 6. In conclusion, this study indicate that the acute and long-term effects of 17-beta-estradiol in the rat aorta are mediated through different mechanisms. The long-term effect is mediated through the endothelium most likely by increasing NO release. In contrast, the acute effect of 17-beta-estradiol seems to be through an effect on the vascular smooth muscle cells. (+info)
(2/1013) Paradoxical dilation of the large cerebral arteries in hypocapnia in man.
By grouping patients who had carotid angiograms under unusually carefully monitored conditions it has been shown that hypocapnia is associated with vasodilation at low blood pressure but not at high blood pressure. The mechanism is discussed in general terms and it is suggested that the hypocapnic vasodilation may be a response to cerebral hypoxia and may be transmitted via an intracerebral autonomic pathway. Clinical and angiographical diagnoses are given for 50 patients. (+info)
(3/1013) Perfusion of the human finger during cold-induced vasodilatation.
We have investigated the effect of severe local cooling on the vasomotor activity of the arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and other finger vessels. The right third finger was subjected to local cooling (3 degrees C) for 30-45 min in 21 healthy, thermoneutral subjects. Blood velocity in the third finger arteries of both hands was simultaneously recorded using ultrasound Doppler, and skin temperature and laser-Doppler flux from the pulp of the cooled finger were also recorded. The results demonstrate that the initial cold-induced vasoconstriction during severe local cooling involves constriction of the AVAs as well as the two main arteries supplying this finger. During cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), the maximum velocity values were not significantly different from those before cooling. Furthermore, the velocity fluctuations in the cooled finger were in most subjects found to be synchronous with the velocity fluctuations in the control finger. This indicates that the large blood flow to the finger and the high skin temperature during CIVD are caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of the AVAs. (+info)
(4/1013) Cyclooxygenase-2 plays a significant role in regulating the tone of the fetal lamb ductus arteriosus.
Nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are potent tocolytic agents but have adverse effects on the fetal ductus arteriosus. We hypothesized that COX-2 inhibitors may not affect the ductus if the predominant COX isoform is COX-1. To examine this hypothesis, we used ductus arteriosus obtained from late-gestation fetal lambs. In contrast to our hypothesis, fetal lamb ductus arteriosus expressed both COX-1- and COX-2-immunoreactive protein (by Western analysis). Although COX-1 was found in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells, COX-2 was found only in the endothelial cells lining the ductus lumen (by immunohistochemistry). The relative contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to PGE2 synthesis was consistent with the immunohistochemical results: in the intact ductus, PGE2 formation was catalyzed by both COX-1 and COX-2 in equivalent proportions; in the endothelium-denuded ductus, COX-2 no longer played a significant role in PGE2 synthesis. NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, was 66% as effective as the selective COX-1 inhibitor valeryl salicylate and the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin in causing contraction of the ductus in vitro. At this time, caution should be used when recommending COX-2 inhibitors for use in pregnant women. (+info)
(5/1013) Contribution of endothelin to renal vascular tone and autoregulation in the conscious dog.
Exogenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a strong vasoconstrictor in the canine kidney and causes a decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) by stimulating the ETA receptor subtype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endogenously generated ET-1 in renal hemodynamics under physiological conditions. In six conscious foxhounds, the time course of the effects of the selective ETA receptor antagonist LU-135252 (10 mg/kg iv) on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), RBF, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as well as its effects on renal autoregulation, were examined. LU-135252 increased RBF by 20% (from 270 +/- 21 to 323 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.05) and HR from 76 +/- 5 to 97 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0. 05), but did not alter MAP, GFR, or autoregulation of RBF and GFR. Since a number of interactions between ET-1 and the renin-angiotensin system have been reported previously, experiments were repeated during angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by trandolaprilat (2 mg/kg iv). When ETA receptor blockade was combined with ACE inhibition, which by itself had no effects on renal hemodynamics, marked changes were observed: MAP decreased from 91 +/- 4 to 80 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05), HR increased from 85 +/- 5 to 102 +/- 11 beats/min (P < 0.05), and RBF increased from 278 +/- 23 to 412 +/- 45 ml/min (P < 0.05). Despite a pronounced decrease in renal vascular resistance over the entire pressure range investigated (40-100 mmHg), the capacity of the kidneys to autoregulate RBF was not impaired. The GFR remained completely unaffected at all pressure levels. These results demonstrate that endogenously generated ET-1 contributes significantly to renal vascular tone but does not interfere with the mechanisms of renal autoregulation. If ETA receptors are blocked, then the vasoconstrictor effects of ET-1 in the kidney are compensated for to a large extent by an augmented influence of ANG II. Thus ET-1 and ANG II appear to constitute a major interrelated vasoconstrictor system in the control of RBF. (+info)
(6/1013) The effects of age on human venous responsiveness to neuropeptide Y.
AIMS: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter released with noradrenaline during sympathetic stimulation. Ageing has been shown to be associated with a reduction in alpha2 and beta-adrenoceptor mediated responses in veins, but it is not known whether NPY responsiveness is also altered with increasing age. METHODS: Using a dorsal hand vein technique, we examined NPY receptor responsiveness in 24 normal, healthy subjects (20-72 years; 10 males, 14 females). Graded infusions of NPY (25-2000 pmol min(-1)) were administered (5 min at each dose) into a dorsal hand vein. Venous distension at 45 mmHg was measured at 3-5 min of each infusion. Dose-response curves to NPY were constructed and the peak venoconstriction was calculated. RESULTS: Dose-dependent venoconstriction was seen in all but one subject. The peak venoconstriction observed with NPY was significantly and negatively correlated with the age of the normal subjects (r=-0.63, P<0.01). When subjects were ranked from youngest to oldest and divided into tertiles, (20-40 years, n = 8; 41-55 years, n = 8; 56-72 years, n = 8), mean dose-response curves were different with the oldest tertile being significantly less responsive (P<0.05). The peak venoconstriction observed (% of control) was 65.1+/-7.0, 46.5+/-9.4, and 24.4+/-4.8%, respectively. The oldest tertile had a significantly decreased peak venoconstriction compared with the youngest tertile (P<0.01). Infusion of NPY into a dorsal hand vein had no systemic effects on heart rate or blood pressure in any of the subjects studied. CONCLUSIONS: Hand vein responsiveness to exogenously infused NPY in normal subjects is decreased as age increases. The reduction of NPY-receptor-mediated responses with age may influence sympathetic nervous system control of the venous system with advancing age. (+info)
(7/1013) Contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to regulation of diameter in resistance vessels.
Endogenous carbon monoxide was proposed to subserve vasodepressor functions. If so, inhibition of heme oxygenase may be expected to promote vascular contraction. This hypothesis was examined in large and small arteries and in isolated first-order gracilis muscle arterioles of rat. The heme oxygenase inhibitors chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (0.175-102 micromol/l) decreased the diameter of pressurized (80 mmHg) gracilis muscle arterioles, whereas magnesium protoporphyrin, a weak heme oxygenase inhibitor, did not. CrMP also elicited development of isometric tension in the muscular branch of the femoral artery but not in the aorta or femoral artery. Arteriolar constrictor responses to CrMP varied in relation to the intravascular pressure, were blunted in preparations exposed to exogenous carbon monoxide (100 micromol/l), and were unaffected by an endothelin receptor antagonist. Importantly, CrMP amplified the constrictor response to increases of pressure in gracilis arterioles. Accordingly, the constrictor effect of heme oxygenase inhibitors is attributable to magnification of myogenic tone due to withdrawal of a vasodilatory mechanism mediated by endogenous carbon monoxide. The study suggests that the vascular carbon monoxide system plays a role in the regulation of basal tone in resistance vessels. (+info)
(8/1013) Betamethasone-mediated vascular dysfunction and changes in hematological profile in the ovine fetus.
Glucocorticoid administration to fetal sheep induces a sustained systemic blood pressure rise and an associated increase in femoral vascular resistance. We utilized a small vessel myograph to compare isometric vascular responses of small femoral arterial branches from fetal sheep infused intravenously with either betamethasone or vehicle in vivo from 128 days gestation. Changes in hematological parameters were also determined. Betamethasone was infused for 48 h to produce fetal plasma betamethasone concentrations similar to those observed in human fetuses after maternal treatment with betamethasone to accelerate fetal lung maturation. When compared with vessels removed from vehicle-infused fetuses, vessels obtained from betamethasone-treated fetuses exhibited 1) enhanced sensitivity to depolarizing potassium solutions; 2) no differences in response to the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 or norepinephrine; and 3) differential responses to vasodilators, enhanced sensitivity to ACh, but decreased response to bradykinin and forskolin. In addition, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts were increased in betamethasone-infused fetuses. These observations indicate that multiple mechanisms operate to increase fetal vascular resistance during antenatal betamethasone exposure. (+info)