(25/116) Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies directed against myeloperoxidase augment leukocyte-microvascular interactions in vivo.
Systemic small vessel vasculitis is associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCAs). While there is mounting in vitro evidence to suggest that ANCAs are capable of enhancing leukocyte-endothelial interactions, no in vivo evidence for this has been provided. In this study a novel rat model of ANCA-associated experimental autoimmune vasculitis (EAV), induced by immunization with human myeloperoxidase (MPO), was used to analyze directly the potential effect of ANCAs on leukocyte-venular wall interactions in vivo as observed by intravital microscopy. These rats developed anti-MPO antibodies directed against rat leukocytes, showed pathologic evidence of small vessel vasculitis, and had enhanced leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in response to the chemokine Groalpha (CXCL1 [CXC ligand 1]). Passive transfer of immunoglobulin from rats with EAV to naive rats conferred enhanced adhesion and transmigration responses in the recipients. Furthermore, rats with EAV and recipients of ANCA-positive immunoglobulin developed extensive microvascular injury, as manifested by mesenteric hemorrhage, in response to CXCL1. This study provides the first direct in vivo evidence for the ability of ANCAs to enhance leukocyte-endothelial interactions and cause microvascular hemorrhage, thereby providing a mechanism by which ANCAs could exert pathogenic effects in systemic vasculitis. (+info)
(26/116) Microscopic polyangiitis after influenza vaccination.
After influenza vaccination an 83-year-old woman was referred to us because of fever and sore throat with no response to antibiotics. Chest computed tomography showed thickened bronchovascular bundles, multiple nodules with feeding vessels, and consolidation. Laboratory tests showed a high level of serum myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), as well as abnormal renal function and urinary sediment. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed organizing pneumonia. We made a diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis after influenza vaccination. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide were effective. Careful attention should be paid to severe adverse effects such as systemic vasculitides after influenza vaccination. (+info)
(27/116) Serum levels of soluble P-selectin are increased and associated with disease activity in patients with Behcet's syndrome.
Behcet's syndrome (BS) is a relapsing, chronic, inflammatory disease characterized by endothelial dysfunction, atherothromboembogenesis, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis with complex immunologic molecular interactions. Generalized derangements of the lymphocyte and neutrophil populations, activated monocytes, and increased PMNLs motility with upregulated cell surface molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, which are found on the endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets, have all been demonstrated during the course of BS. Our aim is to investigate the association of serum concentrations of soluble P-selectin in patients with BS, and to evaluate whether disease activity has an effect on their blood levels. This multicenter study included 31 patients with BS (15 men and 16 women) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control volunteers (11 men and nine women). Neutrophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and acute-phase reactants as well as soluble P-selectin levels were determined. The mean age and sex distributions were similar (P > .05) between BS patients (35 years) and control volunteers (36 years). Serum levels of soluble P-selectin in patients with BS (399 +/- 72 ng/mL) were significantly (P < .001) higher when compared with control subjects (164 +/- 40 ng/mL). In addition, active BS patients (453 +/- 37 ng/mL) had significantly (P < .001) elevated levels of soluble P-selectin than those in inactive period (341 +/- 52 ng/mL). This study clearly demonstrated that serum soluble P-selectin levels are increased in BS patients when compared with control subjects, suggesting a modulator role for soluble P-selectin during the course of platelet activation and therefore, atherothrombogenesis formation in BS, especially in active disease. (+info)
(28/116) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated autoimmune diseases induced by antithyroid drugs: comparison with idiopathic ANCA vasculitides.
Clinical and serological profiles of idiopathic and drug-induced autoimmune diseases can be very similar. We compared data from idiopathic and antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive patients. From 1993 to 2003, 2474 patients were tested for ANCA in the Laboratory for Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Belgrade. Out of 2474 patients, 72 (2.9%) were anti-proteinase 3 (PR3)- or anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive and their clinical and serological data were analyzed. The first group consisted of ANCA-associated idiopathic systemic vasculitis (ISV) diagnosed in 56/72 patients: 29 Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), 23 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and four Churg-Strauss syndrome. The second group consisted of 16/72 patients who became ANCA-positive during ATD therapy (12 receiving propylthiouracil and four receiving methimazole). We determined ANCA and antinuclear (ANA) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence; PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA, anticardiolipin (aCL) and antihistone antibodies (AHA) by ELISA; and cryoglobulins by precipitation. Complement components C3 and C4, alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha1 AT) and C reactive protein (CR-P) were measured by nephelometry. Renal lesions were present in 3/16 (18.8%) ATD-treated patients and in 42/56 (75%) ISV patients (p <0.001). Skin lesions occurred in 10/16 (62.5%) ATD-treated patients and 14/56 (25%) ISV patients (p <0.01). ATD-treated patients more frequently had MPO-ANCA, ANA, AHA, aCL, cryoglobulins and low C4 (p <0.01). ISV patients more frequently had low alpha1 AT (p = 0.059) and high CR-P (p <0.001). Of 16 ATD-treated patients, four had drug-induced ANCA vasculitis (three MPA and one WG), while 12 had lupus-like disease (LLD). Of 56 ISV patients, 13 died and eight developed terminal renal failure (TRF). There was no lethality in the ATD-treated group, but 1/16 with methimazole-induced MPA developed pulmonary-renal syndrome with progression to TRF. ANCA-positive ISV had a more severe course in comparison with ATD-induced ANCA-positive diseases. Clinically and serologically ANCA-positive ATD-treated patients can be divided into two groups: the first consisting of patients with drug-induced WG or MPA which resemble ISV and the second consisting of patients with LLD. Different serological profiles could help in the differential diagnosis and adequate therapeutic approach to ANCA-positive ATD-treated patients with symptoms of systemic disease. (+info)
(29/116) Clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced vasculitic syndromes.
Clinical recognition of drug-induced vasculitic and lupus-like syndromes is very important because continued use of the offending drug can lead to irreversible and life-threatening vasculitic organ damage (e.g. end-stage renal disease or pulmonary haemorrhage). Withdrawal of the drug often leads to spontaneous recovery, meaning that immunosuppressive therapy can be avoided. The presence of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, IgM anticardiolipin antibody, and antihistone antibodies in combination was found to be characteristic of drug-induced vasculitic syndromes caused by the antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil and methimazol. Clinically, skin vasculitis and arthralgias predominated and renal vasculitis was rare. (+info)
(30/116) Digital vasculitis after splenectomy in a patient with Felty's syndrome.
The case is reported of a man with Felty's syndrome in whom digital cutaneous vasculitis developed after a splenectomy. This may be a coincidental occurrence but a possible mechanism is suggested by which the splenectomy may have modified the immunopathology of the disease. (+info)
(31/116) Leucocytoclastic vasculitis as a presentation of adenocarcinoma rectum.
Vasculitis has been linked to several processes, like infections, drugs and allergic, rheumatologic and neoplastic diseases. Neoplasm-associated vasculitis described in the medical literature has mostly been reported in association with haemotological neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma of rectum presenting as leucocytoclastic vasculitis is rare. We present a case of a 43-year-old male with paraneoplastic leucocytoclastic vasculitis preceding the manifestation of adenocarcinoma rectum. The vasculitis subsided on resection of the rectal malignancy and the patient did not require steroid therapy thereafter. (+info)
(32/116) Erythema elevatum diutinum as a first clinical manifestation for diagnosing HIV infection: case history.
CONTEXT: Erythema elevatum diutinum is a chronic and rare dermatosis that is considered to be a variant of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. It is probably mediated by immune complexes. It is generally associated with autoimmune, neoplastic and infectious processes. Recently, it has been added to the group of specific dermatoses that are associated with HIV. CASE REPORT: We report on the case of a patient who had erythema elevatum diutinum as the first clinical evidence for diagnosing HIV infection. Dapsone was used in the treatment of this patient, and partial regression of the lesions was achieved within 15 days, even before anti-retroviral therapy was prescribed. CONCLUSION: When there is a diagnosis of erythema elevatum diutinum, HIV infection should be investigated, especially in atypical and exacerbated clinical manifestations. (+info)