(1/846) Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog.
Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes. (+info)
(2/846) Interaction of the Doa4 deubiquitinating enzyme with the yeast 26S proteasome.
e Saccharomyces cerevisiae Doa4 deubiquitinating enzyme is required for the rapid degradation of protein substrates of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Previous work suggested that Doa4 functions late in the pathway, possibly by deubiquitinating (poly)-ubiquitin-substrate intermediates associated with the 26S proteasome. We now provide evidence for physical and functional interaction between Doa4 and the proteasome. Genetic interaction is indicated by the mutual enhancement of defects associated with a deletion of DOA4 or a proteasome mutation when the two mutations are combined. Physical association of Doa4 and the proteasome was investigated with a new yeast 26S proteasome purification procedure, by which we find that a sizeable fraction of Doa4 copurifies with the protease. Another yeast deubiquitinating enzyme, Ubp5, which is related in sequence to Doa4 but cannot substitute for it even when overproduced, does not associate with the proteasome. DOA4-UBP5 chimeras were made by a novel PCR/yeast recombination method and used to identify an N-terminal 310-residue domain of Doa4 that, when appended to the catalytic domain of Ubp5, conferred Doa4 function, consistent with Ubp enzymes having a modular architecture. Unlike Ubp5, a functional Doa4-Ubp5 chimera associates with the proteasome, suggesting that proteasome binding is important for Doa4 function. Together, these data support a model in which Doa4 promotes proteolysis through removal of ubiquitin from proteolytic intermediates on the proteasome before or after initiation of substrate breakdown. (+info)
(3/846) A mutant deubiquitinating enzyme (Ubp-M) associates with mitotic chromosomes and blocks cell division.
A new ubiquitin-processing protease (Ubp-M) has been identified in mammalian cells that is phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis and dephosphorylated during the metaphase/anaphase transition. The carboxyl-terminal domain of this 823-aa protein can be phosphorylated in vitro with either extracts of mitotic cells or purified cdc-2/cyclin B complexes. Recombinant Ubp-M is able to deubiquitinate histone H2A in vitro, and the phosphorylated form is also enzymatically active. Wild-type Ubp-M, transiently expressed as green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins, localizes in the cytoplasm of cultured cells, but mutant forms, lacking an active-site cysteine, associate closely with mitotic chromosomes during all stages of cell division and remain within the nucleus during the postmitotic period. Cells transfected with plasmids containing mutant Ubp-M genes stop dividing and eventually undergo apoptosis. Ubp-M may deubiquitinate one or more critical proteins that are involved in the condensation of mitotic chromosomes, possibly acting selectively on histones H2A and H2B, the major ubiquitinated proteins of chromatin. (+info)
(4/846) A novel ubiquitin-specific protease, UBP43, cloned from leukemia fusion protein AML1-ETO-expressing mice, functions in hematopoietic cell differentiation.
Using PCR-coupled subtractive screening-representational difference analysis, we have cloned a novel gene from AML1-ETO knockin mice. This gene is highly expressed in the yolk sac and fetal liver of the knockin mice. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that its cDNA contains an 1,107-bp open reading frame encoding a 368-amino-acid polypeptide. Further protein sequence and protein translation analysis shows that it belongs to a family of ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBP), and its molecular mass is 43 kDa. Therefore, we have named this gene UBP43. Like other ubiquitin proteases, the UBP43 protein has deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Protein ubiquitination has been implicated in many important cellular events. In wild-type adult mice, UBP43 is highly expressed in the thymus and in peritoneal macrophages. Among nine different murine hematopoietic cell lines analyzed, UBP43 expression is detectable only in cell lines related to the monocytic lineage. Furthermore, its expression is regulated during cytokine-induced monocytic cell differentiation. We have investigated its function in the hematopoietic myeloid cell line M1. UBP43 was introduced into M1 cells by retroviral gene transfer, and several high-expressing UBP43 clones were obtained for further study. Morphologic and cell surface marker examination of UBP43/M1 cells reveals that overexpression of UBP43 blocks cytokine-induced terminal differentiation of monocytic cells. These data suggest that UBP43 plays an important role in hematopoiesis by modulating either the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway or the ubiquitination state of another regulatory factor(s) during myeloid cell differentiation. (+info)
(5/846) Depletion of cutaneous peptidergic innervation in HIV-associated xerosis.
Severe xerosis occurs in approximately 20% of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. Changes in cutaneous innervation have been found in various inflammatory skin diseases and in xerotic skin in familial amyloid. We have therefore carried out a quantitative examination of the cutaneous peptidergic innervation in human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis quantitation were used to compare total cutaneous innervation (protein gene product 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide peptidergic fibers, at two sites in the skin of human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis patients (upper arm, n = 12; upper leg, n = 11) and site-matched seronegative controls (upper arm, n = 10; upper leg, n = 10). Measurement of lengths of fibers of each type was carried out for each subject in the epidermis and papillary dermis, and around the sweat glands. Immunostained mast cells in these areas were counted. Epidermal integrity and maturation were assessed by immunostaining for involucrin. There were significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.02) decreases in total lengths of protein gene product 9.5 fibers in both epidermis/papillary dermis and sweat gland fields; of calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation in the epidermis/papillary dermis; and of substance P innervation of the sweat glands. There were no differences in the distribution of mast cells, or in the epidermal expression of involucrin. Depletion of the calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation may affect the nutrient blood supply of the upper dermis, and the integrity and function of basal epidermis and Langerhans cells. Diminished substance P innervation of the sweat glands may affect their secretory activity. Both of these changes may be implicated in the development of xerosis. (+info)
(6/846) Morphological changes in periodontal mechanoreceptors of mouse maxillary incisors after the experimental induction of anterior crossbite: a light and electron microscopic observation using immunohistochemistry for PGP 9.5.
Ruffini nerve endings (mechanoreceptors) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) of mouse incisors were examined to elucidate whether experimentally-induced crossbites cause any changes or abnormalities in their morphology and distribution. Anterior guiding planes were attached to the mandibular incisors of 3-week-old C3H/HeSlc mice. At 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-attachment of the appliance, the mice were sacrificed by perfusion fixation. Frozen sagittal cryostat sections of the decalcified maxillary incisors were processed for immunohistochemistry of protein gene product 9.5, followed by histochemical determination of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity to reveal sites of alveolar bone resorption. Despite the absence of bone resorption within the lingual PDL of control mice, distinct resorption sites were seen in the respective regions of the experimental animals. Unlike the controls, many Ruffini endings showing vague and swollen contours, with unusually long and pedunculated micro-projections were observed in the affected lingual PDL of the incisors in the experimental animals with short-term anterior crossbite induction. Club-shaped nerve terminations with few, if any, micro-projections were observed in the lingual PDL of experimental animals with long-term induction, as well as in aged control mouse incisors. Differences in the distribution of Ruffini endings were also observed. These results indicate that changing the direction of the force applied to the PDL results in rapid and prolonged changes in the morphology of Ruffini-like mechanoreceptors. (+info)
(7/846) Oxidative stress-induced destruction of the yeast C-type cyclin Ume3p requires phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and the 26S proteasome.
The yeast UME3 (SRB11/SSN3) gene encodes a C-type cyclin that represses the transcription of the HSP70 family member SSA1. To relieve this repression, Ume3p is rapidly destroyed in cells exposed to elevated temperatures. This report demonstrates that Ume3p levels are also reduced in cultures subjected to ethanol shock, oxidative stress, or carbon starvation or during growth on nonfermentable carbons. Of the three elements (RXXL, PEST, and cyclin box) previously shown to be required for heat-induced Ume3p destruction, only the cyclin box regulates Ume3p degradation in response to these stressors. The one exception observed was growth on nonfermentable carbons, which requires the PEST region. These findings indicate that yeast cells contain multiple, independent pathways that mediate stress-induced Ume3p degradation. Ume3p destruction in response to oxidative stress, but not to ethanol treatment, requires DOA4 and UMP1, two factors required for 26S proteasome activity. This result for the first time implicates ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in C-type cyclin regulation. Similarly, the presence of a membrane stabilizer (sorbitol) or the loss of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC1) protects Ume3p from oxidative-stress-induced degradation. Finally, a ume3 null allele suppresses the growth defect of plc1 mutants in response to either elevated temperature or the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the growth defects observed in plc1 mutants are due to the failure to downregulate Ume3p. Taken together, these findings support a model in which Plc1p mediates an oxidative-stress signal from the plasma membrane that triggers Ume3p destruction through a Doa4p-dependent mechanism. (+info)
(8/846) Development of the chick olfactory nerve.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced and secreted by neurons dispersed throughout the septal-preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas in adult birds and mammals. These neurons, essential for a functional brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, differentiate in the olfactory placode, the superior aspect of which forms the olfactory epithelium. To reach their final placement within the brain, GnRH neurons migrate out of the epithelium and along the olfactory nerve to the CNS. This nerve is essential for the entrance of GnRH neurons into the CNS. Due to the importance of the nerve for the proper migration of these neurons, we have used immunocytochemistry, DiI labeling and 1 microm serial plastic-embedded sections to characterize the nerve's earliest development in the embryonic chick (stages 17-21). Initially (stage 17) the zone between the placode and prosencephalon is a cellular mass contiguous with the placode. This cluster, known as epithelioid cells, is positive for some but not all neuronal markers studied. The epithelium itself is negative for all neuronal and glial markers at this early stage. By stage 18, the first neurites emerge from the epithelium; this was confirmed at stage 19 by examination of serial 1 microm plastic sections. There is sequential acquisition of immunoreactivity to neuronal markers from stage 18 to 21. The glial component of the nerve appears at stage 21. Axons originating from epithelium, extend to the border of the CNS as confirmed by DiI labeling at stage 21. Small fascicles have entered the CNS at this stage. As previously reported, GnRH neurons begin their migration between stages 20-21 and have also arrived at the border of the brain at stage 21. Despite the penetration of neurites from the olfactory nerve into the CNS, GnRH neurons pause at the nerve-brain junction until stage 29 (2 1/2 days later) before entering the brain. Subsequent studies will examine the nature of the impediment to continued GnRH neuronal migration. (+info)