(65/106051) Randomized, controlled trial of long-term moderate exercise training in chronic heart failure: effects on functional capacity, quality of life, and clinical outcome.

BACKGROUND: It is still a matter of debate whether exercise training (ET) is a beneficial treatment in chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine whether long-term moderate ET improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with CHF and whether these effects translate into a favorable outcome, 110 patients with stable CHF were initially recruited, and 99 (59+/-14 years of age; 88 men and 11 women) were randomized into 2 groups. One group (group T, n=50) underwent ET at 60% of peak &f1;O2, initially 3 times a week for 8 weeks, then twice a week for 1 year. Another group (group NT, n=49) did not exercise. At baseline and at months 2 and 14, all patients underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, while 74 patients (37 in group T and 37 in group NT) with ischemic heart disease underwent myocardial scintigraphy. Quality of life was assessed by questionnaire. Ninety-four patients completed the protocol (48 in group T and 46 in group NT). Changes were observed only in patients in group T. Both peak &f1;O2 and thallium activity score improved at 2 months (18% and 24%, respectively; P<0. 001 for both) and did not change further after 1 year. Quality of life also improved and paralleled peak VO2. Exercise training was associated both with lower mortality (n=9 versus n=20 for those with training versus those without; relative risk (RR)=0.37; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.84; P=0.01) and hospital readmission for heart failure (5 versus 14; RR=0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88; P=0.02). Independent predictors of events were ventilatory threshold at baseline (beta-coefficient=0.378) and posttraining thallium activity score (beta-coefficient -0.165). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term moderate ET determines a sustained improvement in functional capacity and quality of life in patients with CHF. This benefit seems to translate into a favorable outcome.  (+info)

(66/106051) Long-term functional status and quality of life after lower extremity revascularization.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the longer term (up to 7 years) functional status and quality of life outcomes from lower extremity revascularization. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional telephone survey and chart review at the University of Minnesota Hospital. The subjects were patients who underwent their first lower extremity revascularization procedure or a primary amputation for vascular disease between January 1, 1989, and January 31, 1995, who had granted consent or had died. The main outcome measures were ability to walk, SF-36 physical function, SF-12, subsequent amputation, and death. RESULTS: The medical records for all 329 subjects were reviewed after the qualifying procedures for details of the primary procedure (62.6% arterial bypass graft, 36.8% angioplasty, 0.6% atherectomy), comorbidities (64% diabetics), severity of disease, and other vascular risk factors. All 166 patients who were living were surveyed by telephone between June and August 1996. At 7 years after the qualifying procedure, 73% of the patients who were alive still had the qualifying limb, although 63% of the patients had died. Overall, at the time of the follow-up examination (1 to 7.5 years after the qualifying procedure), 65% of the patients who were living were able to walk independently and 43% had little or no limitation in walking several blocks. In a multiple regression model, patients with diabetes and patients who were older were less likely to be able to walk at follow-up examination and had a worse functional status on the SF-36 and a lower physical health on the SF-12. Number of years since the procedure was not a predictor in any of the analyses. CONCLUSION: Although the long-term mortality rate is high in the population that undergoes lower limb revascularization, the survivors are likely to retain their limb over time and have good functional status.  (+info)

(67/106051) Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb.  (+info)

(68/106051) Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning.

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

(69/106051) Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

(70/106051) Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy.

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

(71/106051) Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting.

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

(72/106051) Mid-term results of endoscopic perforator vein interruption for chronic venous insufficiency: lessons learned from the North American subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery registry. The North American Study Group.

PURPOSE: The safety, feasibility, and early efficacy of subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency were established in a preliminary report. The long-term clinical outcome and the late complications after SEPS are as yet undetermined. METHODS: The North American Subfascial Endoscopic Perforator Surgery registry collected information on 148 SEPS procedures that were performed in 17 centers in the United States and Canada between August 1, 1993, and February 15, 1996. The data analysis in this study focused on mid-term outcome in 146 patients. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients (79 men and 67 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 27 to 87 years) underwent SEPS. One hundred and one patients (69%) had active ulcers (class 6), and 21 (14%) had healed ulcers (class 5). One hundred and three patients (71%) underwent concomitant venous procedures (stripping, 70; high ligation, 17; varicosity avulsion alone, 16). There were no deaths or pulmonary embolisms. One deep venous thrombosis occurred at 2 months. The follow-up periods averaged 24 months (range, 1 to 53 months). Cumulative ulcer healing at 1 year was 88% (median time to healing, 54 days). Concomitant ablation of superficial reflux and lack of deep venous obstruction predicted ulcer healing (P <.05). Clinical score improved from 8.93 to 3.98 at the last follow-up (P <. 0001). Cumulative ulcer recurrence at 1 year was 16% and at 2 years was 28% (standard error, < 10%). Post-thrombotic limbs had a higher 2-year cumulative recurrence rate (46%) than did those limbs with primary valvular incompetence (20%; P <.05). Twenty-eight of the 122 patients (23%) who had class 5 or class 6 ulcers before surgery had an active ulcer at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of perforators with ablation of superficial reflux is effective in decreasing the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and rapidly healing ulcers. Recurrence or new ulcer development, however, is still significant, particularly in post-thrombotic limbs. The reevaluation of the indications for SEPS is warranted because operations in patients without previous deep vein thrombosis are successful but operations in those patients with deep vein thrombosis are less successful. Operations on patients with deep vein occlusion have poor outcomes.  (+info)