(49/106051) A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group.

This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of fluconazole vs. itraconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. HIV-infected patients who had been successfully treated (achieved negative culture of CSF) for a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis were randomized to receive fluconazole or itraconazole, both at 200 mg/d, for 12 months. The study was stopped prematurely on the recommendation of an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. At the time, 13 (23%) of 57 itraconazole recipients had experienced culture-positive relapse, compared with 2 relapses (4%) noted among 51 fluconazole recipients (P = .006). The factor best associated with relapse was the patient having not received flucytosine during the initial 2 weeks of primary treatment for cryptococcal disease (relative risk = 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-27.14; P = .04). Fluconazole remains the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal disease. Flucytosine may contribute to the prevention of relapse if used during the first 2 weeks of primary therapy.  (+info)

(50/106051) Results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve.

BACKGROUND: The results of immediate and short term follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve have been well documented, but there is limited information on long term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in children and adolescents. SETTING: Tertiary care centre/university hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS AND RESULTS: 85 patients (aged between 1 day and 20 years, mean (SD) 7.0 (6.4) years) underwent balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve during an 11 year period ending August 1994. There was a resultant reduction in the peak to peak gradient from 87 (38) to 26 (22) mm Hg. Immediate surgical intervention was not required. Residual gradients of 29 (17) mm Hg were measured by catheterisation (n = 47) and echo Doppler (n = 82) at intermediate term follow up (two years). When individual results were scrutinised, nine of 82 patients had restenosis, defined as a peak gradient of 50 mm Hg or more. Seven of these patients underwent repeat balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve: peak gradients were reduced from 89 (40) to 38 (20) mm Hg. Clinical evaluation and echo Doppler data of 80 patients showed that residual peak instantaneous Doppler gradients were 17 (15) mm Hg at long term follow up (three to 10 years, median seven), with evidence for late restenosis in one patient (1.3%). Surgical intervention was necessary to relieve fixed infundibular stenosis in three patients and supravalvar pulmonary stenosis in one. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed to relieve restenosis in two patients. Actuarial reintervention free rates at one, two, five, and 10 years were 94%, 89%, 88%, and 84%, respectively. Pulmonary valve regurgitation was noted in 70 of 80 patients at late follow up, but neither right ventricular dilatation nor paradoxical interventricular septal motion developed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of late follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve are excellent. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed in 11% of patients and surgical intervention for subvalvlar or supravalvar stenosis in 5%. Most patients had mild residual pulmonary regurgitation but right ventricular volume overload was not required. Balloon dilatation is the treatment of choice in the management of moderate to severe stenosis of the pulmonary valve. Further follow up studies should be undertaken to evaluate the significance of residual pulmonary regurgitation.  (+info)

(51/106051) Animal experimental implantation of an atrial septal defect occluder system.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the implantation technique for the atrial septal defect occluder system (ASDOS) device in an experimental animal model and to determine long term mechanical stability of the device and its in vivo properties in terms of biocompatibility and tissue reaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An atrial septal defect was created and the device implanted in 17 pigs (mean weight 30 kg). The implantation technique was refined and modified because of initial technical and anatomical complications during nine acute pilot studies. The technique proved to be feasible in eight subsequent survival studies. Four pigs were electively killed three months after implantation (group 1). The remaining four pigs were killed six months after implantation (group 2). RESULTS: Necropsy showed all devices were embedded in soft tissue three months after implantation. Microscopic examination of atrial septal tissue showed an acute granulomatous inflammatory reaction in group 1 and fibrosis in group 2. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction around the device was clearly milder in group 2, indicating a decline in the inflammatory response with time. Clinical and biochemical investigations indicated acceptable biocompatibility of the device. CONCLUSION: The implantation technique for the ASDOS device in a chronic pig model has been established. Biocompatibility of the device was acceptable.  (+info)

(52/106051) Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates: results from the European CEASE trial. Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation. European Respiratory Society.

The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study. The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six chest clinics enrolled a total of 3,575 smokers. Subjects were allocated to one of five treatment arms: placebo and either standard or higher dose nicotine patches (15 mg and 25 mg daily) each given for 8 or 22 weeks with adjunctive moderately intensive support. The 12 month sustained success rates were: 25 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-25), 15.4%; 25 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-25), 15.9%; 15 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-15), 13.7%; 15 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-15), 11.7%; and placebo (P-0) 9.9% (placebo versus 15 mg, p<0.05; 25 mg versus 15 mg, p<0.03; 25 mg versus placebo, p<0.001, Chi-squared test). There was no significant difference in success rate between the two active treatment durations. Of the first week abstainers (n=1,698), 25.1% achieved success at 12 months as opposed to first week smokers, 2.7% of 1,877 subjects (p< 0.001). In summary, a higher than standard dose of nicotine patch was associated with an increase in the long-term success in smoking cessation but continuation of treatment beyond 8-12 weeks did not increase the success rates.  (+info)

(53/106051) Delayed increase in infarct volume after cerebral ischemia: correlations with thrombolytic treatment and clinical outcome.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Growing experimental evidence indicates that the development of cerebral ischemic damage is slower than previously believed. The aims of this work were (1) to study the evolution of CT hypoattenuation between 24 to 36 hours and 7 days in ischemic stroke patients; (2) to evaluate whether thrombolytic treatment given within 6 hours of stroke affects delayed infarction evolution; and (3) to investigate possible correlations between lesion volume changes over time and clinical outcome. METHODS: Of 620 patients included in the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 1 (ECASS1), we selected 450 patients whose control CT scans at day 1 (CT1) and day 7 (CT7) were available. They had been randomly divided into 2 groups: 206 patients had been treated with rtPA and 244 with placebo. CT1 and CT7 were classified according to the location of the infarct. The volume of CT hypoattenuation was measured using the formula AxBxC/2 for irregular volumes. The 95% confidence interval of inter- and intrarater variability was used to determine whether significant changes in lesion volume had occurred between CT1 and CT7. Clinical severity was evaluated by means of the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) at entry (SSS0) and at day 30 (SSS30). RESULTS: Mean lesion volumes were significantly (P<0.0001) higher at day 7 than at day 1 in all the subgroups of patients and particularly in patients with a subcortical lesion. Of the 450 patients studied, 287 (64%) did not show any significant change in lesion volume between CT1 and CT7, 143 (32%) showed a significant increase and the remaining 20 (4%) a significant decrease. No significant correlation was observed between treatment and lesion evolution between CT1 and CT7. Both clinical scores (SSS0 and SSS30) and degree of neurological recovery were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the subgroup of patients with a significant lesion volume increase than in the other 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In approximately two thirds of patients, infarct size is established 24 to 36 hours after stroke onset, whereas in the remaining one third, changes in lesion volume may occur later than the first 24 to 36 hours. Many factors may be responsible for delayed infarct enlargement and for a lower degree of clinical recovery, both of which may occur despite early recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment.  (+info)

(54/106051) Manipulation of total knee replacements. Is the flexion gained retained?

As part of a prospective study of 476 total knee replacements (TKR), we evaluated the use of manipulation under anaesthesia in 47 knees. Manipulation was considered when intensive physiotherapy failed to increase flexion to more than 80 degrees. The mean time from arthroplasty to manipulation was 11.3 weeks (median 9, range 2 to 41). The mean active flexion before manipulation was 62 degrees (35 to 80). One year later the mean gain was 33 degrees (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, range -5 to 70, 95% CI 28.5 to 38.5). Definite sustained gains in flexion were achieved even when manipulation was performed four or more months after arthroplasty (paired t-test, p < 0.01, CI 8.4 to 31.4). A further 21 patients who met our criteria for manipulation declined the procedure. Despite continued physiotherapy, there was no significant increase in flexion in their knees. Six weeks to one year after TKR, the mean change was 3.1 degrees (paired t-test, p = 0.23, CI -8.1 to +2).  (+info)

(55/106051) Long-term results of spherical acetabular osteotomy.

We have examined the effect of the Wagner spherical acetabular osteotomy on preserving the joint in 38 hips with a mean follow-up of 17 years. At the time of the initial operation, 55% of patients had clinical symptoms and 30 joints showed minimal or absent radiological signs of osteoarthritis. At follow-up, 54% of patients had a good functional result. The osteotomy improved the mean centre-edge angle from -3 degrees to +15 degrees, the mean anterior centre-edge angle to 23 degrees and the acetabular head index to 75%. The obliquity of the acetabular roof decreased from 28 degrees to 16 degrees. One patient improved, but 14 deteriorated with joint degeneration. Of these, one progressed because of postoperative deep-tissue infection and five due to undercorrection. One patient needed total joint replacement after 14 years. At 17 years after operation, Wagner osteotomy had prevented progression of secondary arthritis in 63% of cases.  (+info)

(56/106051) Non-operative management of acetabular fractures. The use of dynamic stress views.

To assess the stability of the hip after acetabular fracture, dynamic fluoroscopic stress views were taken of 41 acetabular fractures that met the criteria for non-operative management. These included roof arcs of 45 degrees, a subchondral CT arc of 10 mm, displacement of less than 50% of the posterior wall, and congruence on the AP and Judet views of the hip. There were three unstable hips which were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The remaining 38 fractures were treated non-operatively with early mobilisation and delayed weight-bearing. At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the results were good or excellent in 91% of the cases. Three fair results were ascribed to the patients' other injuries. Dynamic stress views can identify subtle instability in patients who would normally be considered for non-operative treatment.  (+info)