(1/197) Temperature coefficient of membrane currents induced by noxious heat in sensory neurones in the rat.

1. Membrane currents induced by noxious heat (Iheat) were studied in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones from newborn rats using ramps of increasing temperature of superfusing solutions. 2. Iheat was observed in about 70 % of small (< 25 microm) DRG neurones. At -60 mV, Iheat exhibited a threshold at about 43 C and reached its maximum, sometimes exceeding 1 nA, at 52 C (716 +/- 121 pA; n = 39). 3. Iheat exhibited a strong temperature sensitivity (temperature coefficient over a 10 C temperature range (Q10) = 17.8 +/- 2.1, mean +/- s.d., in the range 47-51 C; n = 41), distinguishing it from the currents induced by capsaicin (1 microM), bradykinin (5 microM) and weak acid (pH 6.1 or 6.3), which exhibited Q10 values of 1.6-2.8 over the whole temperature range (23-52 C). Repeated heat ramps resulted in a decrease of the maximum Iheat and the current was evoked at lower temperatures. 4. A single ramp exceeding 57 C resulted in an irreversible change in Iheat. In a subsequent trial, maximum Iheat was decreased to less than 50 %, its threshold was lowered to a temperature just above that in the bath and its maximum Q10 was markedly lower (5.6 +/- 0.8; n = 8). 5. DRG neurones that exhibited Iheat were sensitive to capsaicin. However, four capsaicin-sensitive neurones out of 41 were insensitive to noxious heat. There was no correlation between the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses and Iheat. 6. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, Q10 for Iheat was lowered from 25.3 +/- 7.5 to 4. 2 +/- 0.4 (n = 7) in the range 41-50 C. The tachyphylaxis, however, was still observed. 7. A high Q10 of Iheat suggests a profound, rapid and reversible change in a protein structure in the plasma membrane of heat-sensitive nociceptors. It is hypothesized that this protein complex possesses a high net free energy of stabilization (possibly due to ionic bonds) and undergoes disassembly when exposed to noxious heat. The liberated components activate distinct cationic channels to generate Iheat. Their affinity to form the complex at low temperatures irreversibly decreases after one exposure to excessive heat.  (+info)

(2/197) Enhanced delivery of carboplatin into brain tumours with intravenous Cereport (RMP-7): dramatic differences and insight gained from dosing parameters.

Cereport (RMP-7) is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor agonist which increases the permeability of the 'blood-brain tumour barrier' (BBTB) to increase delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to brain tumours. A series of experiments was performed in an RG2 rodent model of glioma to evaluate and refine intravenous (i.v.) parameters to optimize Cereport's clinical utility. The first experiment demonstrated that while carboplatin levels were increased by twofold when given as a bolus during the Cereport infusion, no increase in carboplatin levels were seen when Cereport and carboplatin were simultaneously co-infused for 15 min. A subsequent experiment established that a major factor responsible for the lack of an effect with the co-infusion paradigm was tachyphylaxis to Cereport during the 15 min infusion, for a progressively diminished response to Cereport occurred over that time frame, as plasma levels of carboplatin were rising. A final experiment adjusted the timing of the Cereport and carboplatin infusions so that higher plasma carboplatin levels were achieved prior to initiating the Cereport infusion. Significant uptake effects were achieved when the carboplatin infusion preceded the Cereport infusion by 10 min (i.e. 5 min overlap in the delivery of the two agents). Collectively, these data provide the first systematic evaluation of dosing parameters involving receptor-mediated changes in BBTB permeability and provide new information regarding the pharmacodynamics and potential clinical use of Cereport.  (+info)

(3/197) Rapid tachyphylaxis to hemodynamic effects of PACAP-27 after inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis.

The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-27 are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). We examined whether this tachyphylaxis could be prevented by administration of the putative endothelium-derived nitrosyl factor S-nitroso-L-cysteine (L-SNC) and whether L-SNC may exert its effects via increases in cGMP levels in vascular smooth muscle. Five doses of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats. These responses were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME-treated (50 micromol/kg iv) rats produced vasodilator responses similar to those in saline-treated rats, whereas subsequent injections produced progressively smaller responses. The injection of L-SNC (1,200 nmol/kg iv) before each injection of PACAP-27 prevented tachyphylaxis to the Gs protein-coupled receptor agonist in L-NAME-treated rats, whereas equihypotensive doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (100 micrograms/kg iv) did not. The injection of the membrane-permeant cGMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-cGMP; 30 micromol/kg iv) to L-NAME-treated rats restored resting hemodynamic values to pre-L-NAME levels but did not prevent the development of tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27. These results suggest that nitrosyl factors prevent the development of tachyphylaxis to the hemodynamic actions of PACAP-27. These nitrosyl factors may act independently of their ability to generate cGMP in vascular smooth muscle.  (+info)

(4/197) Evidence that the ATP-induced increase in vasomotion of guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics involves an endothelium-dependent release of thromboxane A2.

1. Experiments were made to investigate mechanisms by which adenosine 5'-trisphosphate (ATP) enhanced vasomotion in mesenteric lymphatic vessels isolated from young guinea-pigs. 2. ATP (10-8 - 10-3 M) caused a concentration-dependent increase of perfusion-induced vasomotion with the endothelium mediating a fundamental role at low ATP concentrations (10-8 - 10-6 M). 3. The response to 10-6 M ATP showed tachyphylaxis when applied at intervals of 10 min but not at intervals of 20 or 30 min. 4. Suramin (10-4 M) or reactive blue 2 (3x10-5 M) but not PPADS (3x10-5 M) abolished the excitatory response to 10-6 M ATP confirming an involvement of P2 purinoceptors. 5. The excitatory response to 10-6 M ATP was abolished by treatment with either pertussis toxin (100 ng ml-1), antiflammin-1 (10-9 M), indomethacin (3x10-6 M) or SQ29548 (3x10-7 M), inhibitors of specific G proteins, phospholipase A2, cyclo-oxygenase and thromboxane A2 receptors respectively. 6. ATP simultaneously induced a suramin-sensitive inhibitory response, which was normally masked by the excitatory response. ATP-induced inhibition was mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) as the response was abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 10-4 M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. 7. We conclude that ATP modulates lymphatic vasomotion by endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent mechanisms. One of these is a dominant excitation caused through endothelial P2 purinoceptors which because of an involvement of a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein may be of the P2Y receptor subtype. Their stimulation increases synthesis of phospholipase A2 and production of thromboxane A2, an arachidonic acid metabolite which acts as an endothelium-derived excitatory factor.  (+info)

(5/197) Functional evidence for an angiotensin IV receptor in rat resistance arteries.

To distinguish between the different effects of angiotensin IV (Ang IV) on resistance artery vasoreactivity, freshly isolated rat mesenteric arteries were perfused and the changes in their diameter were recorded under various conditions. Ang IV exerted vasoconstrictor effects on both normal vessels and vessels that had been precontracted with phenylephrine or serotonin. This effect was abolished by losartan or candesartan cilexetil, two type 1 angiotensin receptor antagonists, but not by PD 123319, a type 2 angiotensin receptor antagonist. No tachyphylaxis was observed for the vasoconstrictor effect of Ang IV. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, had no effect on Ang IV-induced vasoconstriction, whereas indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor that was inactive by itself, influenced Ang IV-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that Ang IV could stimulate the release of prostaglandins. Treatment of preconstricted vessels by candesartan cilexetil unraveled a vasodilator effect of Ang IV that was abolished by PD 123319, a type 2 angiotensin receptor antagonist. Unexpectedly, Ang IV still produced a vasoconstrictor effect on normal or preconstricted vessels after blockade of both type 1 and type 2 angiotensin receptors. Taken together, these results show that Ang IV influences resistance artery vasoreactivity via different mechanisms, one of which implicates a functionally active type 4 angiotensin receptor.  (+info)

(6/197) Tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 after inhibition of NO synthesis: a loss of adenylate cyclase activation.

The vasodilator effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27) are subject to tachyphylaxis in rats treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). This study examined whether this tachyphylaxis is due to the loss of vasodilator potency of cAMP generated by activation of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptors. Five successive treatments with PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline-treated rats that were not subject to tachyphylaxis. The first injection of PACAP-27 (2 nmol/kg iv) in L-NAME (50 micromol/kg iv)-treated rats produced vasodilator responses of similar magnitude to those in saline-treated rats, whereas four subsequent injections produced progressively and markedly smaller responses. The hemodynamic effects of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP; 5-15 micromol/kg iv) were similar in L-NAME-treated rats and in L-NAME-treated rats that had received the five injections of PACAP-27. In addition, five injections of 8-CPT-cAMP (10 micromol/kg iv) produced pronounced vasodilator responses in saline- and L-NAME-treated rats that were not subject to the development of tachyphylaxis. These results suggest that a loss of biological potency of cAMP is not responsible for tachyphylaxis to PACAP-27 in L-NAME-treated rats. This tachyphylaxis may be due to the inability of the G(s) protein-coupled PACAP receptor to activate adenylate cyclase.  (+info)

(7/197) Activation of spinal wide dynamic range neurons by intracutaneous microinjection of nicotine.

Nicotine evokes pain in the skin and oral mucosa and excites a subpopulation of cutaneous nociceptors, but little is known about the central transmission of chemogenic pain. We have investigated the responses of lumbar spinal wide dynamic range (WDR)-type dorsal horn neurons to intracutaneous (ic) microinjection of nicotine in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Nearly all (97%) units responded to nicotine microinjected ic (1 microl) into the low-threshold region of the hind-paw mechanosensitive receptive field in a concentration-related manner (0.01-10%). Responses to repeated injections of 10% nicotine exhibited tachyphylaxis at 5-, 10-, and 15-min interstimulus intervals. Significant tachyphylaxis was not seen with 1% nicotine. All nicotine-responsive units tested (n = 30) also responded to ic histamine (1 microl, 3%) and did not exhibit tachyphylaxis to repeated histamine. However, there was significant cross-tachyphylaxis of nicotine to histamine. Thus 5 min after ic nicotine, histamine-evoked responses were attenuated significantly compared with the initial histamine-evoked response prior to nicotine, with partial recovery over the ensuing 15 min. Neuronal excitation by ic nicotine was not mediated by histamine H1 receptors because ic injection of the H1 receptor antagonist, cetirizine, had no effect on ic nicotine-evoked responses, whereas it significantly attenuated ic histamine-evoked responses in the same neurons. The lowest-threshold portion of cutaneous receptive fields showed a significant expansion in area at 20 min after ic nicotine 10%, indicative of sensitization. Responses to 1% nicotine were significantly reduced after ic injection of the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (0.1% ic), with no recovery over the ensuing 40-60 min. These data indicate that nicotine ic excites spinal WDR neurons, partly via neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are presumably expressed in cutaneous nociceptor terminals. Repeated injections of high concentrations of nicotine led to tachyphylaxis and cross-tachyphylaxis with histamine, possibly relevant to peripheral analgesic effects of nicotine.  (+info)

(8/197) Superficial dorsal horn neurons identified by intracutaneous histamine: chemonociceptive responses and modulation by morphine.

We have investigated whether neurons in superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn respond to intracutaneous (ic) delivery of histamine and other irritant chemicals, and thus might be involved in signaling sensations of itch or chemogenic pain. Single-unit recordings were made from superficial lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats. Chemoresponsive units were identified using ic microinjection of histamine (3%, 1 microl) into the hindpaw as a search stimulus. All superficial units so identified [9 nociceptive-specific (NS), 26 wide-dynamic-range (WDR)] responded to subsequent ic histamine. A comparison group of histamine-responsive deep dorsal horn neurons (n = 16) was similarly identified. The mean histamine-evoked discharge decayed to 50% of the maximal rate significantly more slowly for the superficial (92.2 s +/- 65.5, mean +/- SD) compared with deep dorsal horn neurons (28. 2 s +/- 11.6). In addition to responding to histamine, most superficial dorsal horn neurons were also excited by ic nicotine (22/25 units), capsaicin (21/22), topical mustard oil (5/6), noxious heat (26/30), and noxious and/or innocuous mechanical stimuli (except for 1 unit that did not have a mechanosensitive receptive field). Application of a brief noxious heat stimulus during the response to ic histamine evoked an additive response in all but two cases, followed by transient depression of firing in 11/20 units. Intrathecal (IT) administration of morphine had mixed effects on superficial dorsal horn neuronal responses to ic histamine and noxious heat. Low morphine concentrations (100 nM to 1 microM) facilitated histamine-evoked responses (to >130% of control) in 9/24 units, depressed the responses (by >70%) in 11/24, and had no effect in 4. Naloxone reversed morphine-induced effects in some but not all cases. A higher morphine concentration (10 microM) had a largely depressant, naloxone-reversible effect on histamine responses. Responses of the same superficial neurons to noxious heat were facilitated (15/25), reduced (8/25), or unaffected (2/25) by low morphine concentrations and were depressed by the higher morphine concentration. In contrast, deep dorsal horn neuronal responses to both histamine and noxious heat were primarily depressed by low concentrations of morphine in a naloxone-reversible manner. These results indicate that superficial dorsal horn neurons respond to both pruritic and algesic chemical stimuli and thus might participate in transmitting sensations of itch and/or chemogenic pain. The facilitation of superficial neuronal responses to histamine by low concentrations of morphine, coupled with inhibition of deep dorsal horn neurons, might underlie the development of pruritus that is often observed after epidural morphine.  (+info)