OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and causes of acute tenosynovitis of the forearm of long distance canoeists. METHOD: A systematic sample of canoeists competing in four canoe marathons were interviewed. The interview included questions about the presence and severity of pain in the forearm and average training distances. Features of the paddles and canoes were determined. RESULTS: An average of 23% of the competitors in each race developed this condition. The incidence was significantly higher in the dominant than the nondominant hand but was unrelated to the type of canoe and the angle of the paddle blades. Canoeists who covered more than 100 km a week for eight weeks preceding the race had a significantly lower incidence of tenosynovitis than those who trained less. Environmental conditions during racing, including fast flowing water, high winds, and choppy waters, and the paddling techniques, especially hyperextension of the wrist during the pushing phase of the stroke, were both related to the incidence of tenosynovitis. CONCLUSION: Tenosynovitis is a common injury in long distance canoeists. The study suggests that development of tenosynovitis is not related to the equipment used, but is probably caused by difficult paddling conditions, in particular uneven surface conditions, which may cause an altered paddling style. However, a number of factors can affect canoeing style. Level of fitness and the ability to balance even a less stable canoe, thereby maintaining optimum paddling style without repeated eccentric loading of the forearm tendons to limit hyperextension of the wrist, would seem to be important. (+info)
(2/93) Injuries caused by falling soccer goalposts in Denmark.
OBJECTIVE: A falling soccer goalpost is associated with the potential risk of serious injury that can sometimes even be fatal. The aim of the study was to analyse the extent of the problem in Denmark and focus on the mechanism of injury and prevention. METHODS: Data were analysed for the period 1989-1997 from the European Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System, which is an electronic register of the injuries seen in the casualty departments of the hospitals of five selected cities in Denmark representing 14% of the Danish population; in addition, fatal accidents in the whole of Denmark since 1981 were examined. Forty two injured persons were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. Attempts were made to estimate the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight in the five different regions, compared with the proportion secured with ground stakes and those that were unsecured, by analysing data from the largest producers of goalposts in Denmark. RESULTS: In the period 1981-1988, two fatal accidents were recorded. In the period 1989-1997, 117 people were injured by a falling goalpost; six of the injuries required hospitalisation. Some 88% of the injured were under the age of 15. In a telephone interview with 42 of the injured, 50% stated that the goalpost fell because someone was hanging on the crossbar. Comparing the five different regions with respect to the proportion of goalposts secured by counterweight and the number of accidents, the following relation was found. Areas in which a high percentage of the goalposts were secured by a counterweight correlated inversely with a high number of accidents (r = -0.9; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Soccer is a widely played sport and it is important to be aware that accidents caused by falling goalposts can occur and that they presumably can be prevented by proper use of goalposts, by using secure goalposts, and by securing old goalposts with a counterweight. (+info)
(3/93) Injury rates in Shotokan karate.
OBJECTIVE: To document the injury rate in three British Shotokan karate championships in consecutive years. In these tournaments strict rules governed contact, with only "light" or "touch" contact allowed. Protective padding for the head, hands, or feet was prohibited. METHODS: Prospective recording of injuries resulting from 1770 bouts in three national competitions of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Details of ages and years of karate experience were also obtained. RESULTS: 160 injuries were sustained in 1770 bouts. The overall rate of injury was 0.09 per bout and 0.13 per competitor. 91 (57%) injuries were to the head. The average age of those injured was 22 years, with an average of nine years of experience in karate. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of protective padding does not result in higher injury rates than in most other series of Shotokan karate injuries. Strict refereeing is essential, however, to maintain control and minimise contact. (+info)
(4/93) A preliminary study of patient comfort associated with customised mouthguards.
OBJECTIVE: To compare patient perception of custom made mouthguards of ideal and less than ideal designs in terms of their comfort and "wearability". METHOD: A mouthguard of ideal design (A) and one incorporating common design faults of underextension and unadjusted occlusion (B) were provided for 22 active sportsmen and women. They were not informed of the details of the design or the status of the protector. Half the participants were asked to wear mouthguard A first and the other half wore B first, each worn for one hour on two consecutive nights. Questionnaires were used to evaluate and rate the comfort and wearability of each mouthguard. RESULTS: Eighteen people completed the study. The ideal appliance was rated as significantly more retentive and comfortable overall and specifically was more comfortable to lips, gums, and tongue. It was also recognised as being less bulky, less likely to keep the teeth apart, or to cause pain in the jaw muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Comfort is likely to be increased if mouthguards are extended labially to within 2 mm of the vestibular reflection, adjusted to allow even occlusal contact, rounded at the buccal peripheries, and tapered at the palatal edges. (+info)
(5/93) Injuries to riders in the cross country phase of eventing: the importance of protective equipment.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of injuries in the eventing discipline of equestrian sports and the effectiveness of the protective equipment worn. METHODS: Data on all injuries sustained in the cross country phase over fixed obstacles were collected from 54 days of competition from 1992 to 1997. This involved 16,940 rides. RESULTS: Data on a total of 193 injuries were collected, which included two deaths. This represents an injury rate of 1.1%. Head and facial injuries represented the largest group (31%), with one third of these requiring treatment in hospital. All riders were wearing protective helmets and body protectors. CONCLUSIONS: Eventing is one of the most dangerous equestrian sports. Improved protective equipment, which is mandatory for 1999, should reduce the severity of these injuries. (+info)
(6/93) Effect of changing the saddle angle on the incidence of low back pain in recreational bicyclists.
OBJECTIVE: According to the literature, 30-70% of cyclists suffer from cervical, dorsal, or lumbar back pain. This study was conducted to evaluate one of the possible causes of low back pain and to suggest a solution by appropriate adjustments to the bicycle. METHODS: Serial fluoroscopic studies were performed while cyclists sat on different types of bicycle (sports, mountain, and city). Pelvic/spine angles were measured at different seat angles, and the related force vectors analysed. RESULTS: There was a tendency towards hyperextension of the pelvic/spine angle which resulted in an increase in tensile forces at the promontorium. These forces can easily be reduced by appropriate adjustment of the seat angle--that is, by creating an anterior inclining angle. The findings of the biomechanical analysis were then applied to a group of cyclists who were members of a cycling club and who complained of low back pain. After appropriate adjustment of the saddle angle, most of the cyclists (>70%) reported major improvement in the incidence and magnitude of their back pain. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and magnitude of back pain in cyclists can be reduced by appropriate adjustment of the angle of the saddle. It is important that these findings be conveyed to cyclists, bicycle salesmen, trainers, and members of the general public who engage in cycling, in order to decrease the prevalence of back pain. (+info)
(7/93) Indoor rock climbing: who gets injured?
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of overuse injury in indoor climbers, the common sites of such injury, and the factors that influence the probability that a climber will have sustained an overuse injury while climbing indoors. METHOD: A semisupervised questionnaire was used to survey overuse injury in 295 spectators and competitors at the Entre-Prises World Climbing Championships held in Birmingham 3-5 December 1999. Statistical analysis included simple cross tabulations, calculation of odds ratios, and multiple logistic regression to explore the effect of several factors simultaneously. RESULTS: Some 44% of respondents had sustained an overuse injury, 19% at more than one site. The most common site of injury was the fingers. Univariate analysis showed that the probability of having sustained a climbing injury is higher in men (p = 0.009), those who have climbed for more than 10 years (p = 0.006), those who climb harder routes (p<0.0005), and those who boulder or lead more than they top rope (p<0.0005). The relation between lead grade and climbing injury is linear. Multivariate analysis removed the effect of sex as an independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Many climbers sustain overuse injury. The most at risk are those with the most ability and dedication to climbing. Climbers should be aware of the risk factors that influence injury and be able to spot the signs and symptoms of injury once they occur. (+info)
(8/93) Mountain biking injuries in rural England.
BACKGROUND: Off road mountain biking is now an extremely popular recreation and a potent cause of serious injury. AIM: To establish the morbidity associated with this sport. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively over one year on all patients presenting with an injury caused by either recreational or competitive off road mountain biking. RESULTS: Eighty four patients were identified, 70 males and 14 females, with a mean age of 22.5 years (range 8-71). Most accidents occurred during the summer months, most commonly in August. Each patient had an average of 1.6 injuries (n = 133) and these were divided into 15 categories, ranging from minor soft tissue to potentially life threatening. Operative intervention was indicated for 19 patients (23%) and several required multiple procedures. The commonest injuries were clavicle fractures (13%), shoulder injuries (12%), and distal radial fractures (11%). However, of a more sinister nature, one patient had a C2/3 dislocation requiring urgent stabilisation, one required a chest drain for a haemopneumothorax, and another required an emergency and life saving nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: This sport has recently experienced an explosion in popularity, and, as it carries a significant risk of potentially life threatening injury across all levels of participation, the use of protective equipment to reduce this significant morbidity may be advisable. (+info)