(1/163) The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression.
The Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) gene underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant underexpresses light-regulated nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. cue1 also exhibits mesophyll-specific chloroplast and cellular defects, resulting in reticulate leaves. Both the gene underexpression and the leaf cell morphology phenotypes are dependent on light intensity. In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function. The biosynthesis of aromatics is compromised in cue1, and the reticulate phenotype can be rescued by feeding aromatic amino acids. Determining that CUE1 encodes PPT indicates the in vivo role of the translocator in metabolic partitioning and reveals a mesophyll cell-specific requirement for the translocator in Arabidopsis leaves. The nuclear gene expression defects in cue1 suggest that a light intensity-dependent interorganellar signal is modulated through metabolites dependent on a plastid supply of phosphoenolpyruvate. (+info)
(2/163) Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase and its activation by univalent cations.
The aroA gene (Escherichia coli nomenclature) encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified, cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme purified to homogeneity. It was shown to catalyze a reversible conversion of shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to EPSP and inorganic phosphate. Activation by univalent cations was observed in the forward reaction, with NH+4, Rb+ and K+ exerting the greatest effects. Km(PEP) was lowered by increasing [NH+4] and [K+], whereas Km(S3P) rose with increasing [K+], but fell with increasing [NH+4]. Increasing [NH+4] and [K+] resulted in an overall increase in kcat. Glyphosate (GLP) was found to be a competitive inhibitor with PEP, but the potency of inhibition was profoundly affected by [NH+4] and [K+]. For example, increasing [NH+4] and [K+] reduced Ki(GLP versus PEP) up to 600-fold. In the reverse reaction, the enzyme catalysis was less sensitive to univalent cations. Our analysis included univalent cation concentrations comparable with those found in bacterial cells. Therefore, the observed effects of these metal ions are more likely to reflect the physiological behavior of EPSP synthase and also add to our understanding of how to inhibit this enzyme in the host organism. As there is a much evidence to suggest that EPSP synthase is essential for bacterial survival, its discovery in the serious gram-positive pathogen S. pneumoniae and its inhibition by GLP indicate its potential as a broad-spectrum antibacterial target. (+info)
(3/163) Antagonistic effects of shikimic acid against focal cerebral ischemia injury in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery thrombosis.
AIM: To study the effects of shikimic acid (SA) on focal cerebral ischemic injury after middle cerebral artery thrombosis (MCAT). METHODS: Thrombosis was induced by FeCl3 in middle cerebral artery of rats. The influences of SA on neurologic deficit (ND), infarct size (IS), brain edema, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ischemic region were observed. RESULTS: SA 25 and 50 mg.kg-1 i.p. for 3 d before MCAT attenuated ND, and reduced IS by 51% and 42%; and decreased brain water content from 80.7% to 79.8% and 79.9%; and increased CBF after ischemia from 50.2% of the preischemic level to 75.5% and 73.3%, respectively. In pathologic examination, there was much less thrombosis in MCA in the rat with the pretreatment by SA 25 mg.kg-1. The extent of brain ischemia was much less than that of control. CONCLUSIONS: SA reduced focal cerebral ischemic injury induced by middle cerebral artery thrombosis. (+info)
(4/163) Studies with substrate and cofactor analogues provide evidence for a radical mechanism in the chorismate synthase reaction.
Chorismate synthase catalyzes the conversion of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) to chorismate. The strict requirement for a reduced FMN cofactor and a trans-1,4-elimination are unusual. (6R)-6-Fluoro-EPSP was shown to be converted to chorismate stoichiometrically with enzyme-active sites in the presence of dithionite. This conversion was associated with the oxidation of FMN to give a stable flavin semiquinone. The IC(50) of the fluorinated substrate analogue was 0.5 and 250 microm with the Escherichia coli enzyme, depending on whether it was preincubated with the enzyme or not. The lack of dissociation of the flavin semiquinone and chorismate from the enzyme appears to be the basis of the essentially irreversible inhibition by this analogue. A dithionite-dependent transient formation of flavin semiquinone during turnover of (6S)-6-fluoro-EPSP has been observed. These reactions are best rationalized by radical chemistry that is strongly supportive of a radical mechanism occurring during normal turnover. The lack of activity with 5-deaza-FMN provides additional evidence for the role of flavin in catalysis by the E. coli enzyme. (+info)
(5/163) Biosynthesis of phenazine pigments in mutant and wild-type cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pigmentation mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, selected by observed visual differences in coloration from the wild-type strain, were examined for altered patterns of phenazine synthesis. Three classes of mutants that were incapable of pyocyanine production were identified. Pigmentation patterns that were found to characterize the various mutant classes implicated precursor-product relationships, and a biochemical scheme covering the terminal reactions of pyocyanine biosynthesis is proposed. Among compounds tested as inhibitors of pigmentation, two effectively inhibited pyocyanine production production while allowing cell growth. p-Aminobenzoate inhibited total pigmentation; i.e., no other phenazine accumulated. m-Aminobenzoate inhibited a presumptive methylation step in pyocyanine biosynthesis, abolishing the formation of pyocyanine and aeruginosin pigments but increasing the yields of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid and oxychlororaphin. D-[2,3,4,5(n)-14C]shikimate was most efficiently incorporated into phenazines in the middle to late exponential phase of growth. Label was incorporated predominantly into pyocyanine in the absence of inhibitors and into phenazine 1-carboxylic acid when the organism was grown in the presence of m-aminobenzoate. (+info)
(6/163) Chemical force microscopy with active enzymes.
The adhesion forces have been measured between an atomic force microscope tip derivatized with an active enzyme, shikimate kinase, and an ATP mimic immobilized on a gold surface. Experiments with competitive binding of other ligands in solution show that the observed adhesion forces arise predominantly from specific interactions between the immobilized enzyme and surface-bound adenine derivative. These experiments represent a step in the development of a screening methodology based upon chemical force microscopy. (+info)
(7/163) Chemical shift mapping of shikimate-3-phosphate binding to the isolated N-terminal domain of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.
To facilitate evaluation of enzyme-ligand complexes in solution, we have isolated the 26-kDa N-terminal domain of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase for analysis by NMR spectroscopy. The isolated domain is capable of binding the substrate shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P), and this letter reports the localization of the S3P binding site using chemical shift mapping. Based on the NMR data, we propose that Ser23, Arg27, Ser197, and Tyr200 are directly involved in S3P binding. We also describe changes in the observed nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) that are consistent with a partial conformational change in the N-terminal domain upon S3P binding. (+info)
(8/163) Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the bifunctional chorismate synthase from Neurospora crassa: evidence for a common binding site for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and NADPH.
Chorismate synthase catalyzes the anti-1,4-elimination of the phosphate group and the C-(6proR) hydrogen from 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate to yield chorismate, a central building block in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for reduced FMN, which in the case of the fungal chorismate synthases is supplied by an intrinsic FMN:NADPH oxidoreductase activity, i.e. these enzymes have an additional catalytic activity. Therefore, these fungal enzymes have been termed "bifunctional." We have cloned chorismate synthase from the common bread mold Neurospora crassa, expressed it heterologously in Escherichia coli, and purified it in a three-step purification procedure to homogeneity. Recombinant N. crassa chorismate synthase has a diaphorase activity, i.e. it catalyzes the reduction of oxidized FMN at the expense of NADPH. Using NADPH as a reductant, a reduced flavin intermediate was observed under single and multiple turnover conditions with spectral features similar to those reported for monofunctional chorismate synthases, thus demonstrating that the intermediate is common to the chorismate synthase-catalyzed reaction. Furthermore, multiple turnover experiments in the presence of oxygen have provided evidence that NADPH binds in or near the substrate (5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate) binding site, suggesting that NADPH binding to bifunctional chorismate synthases is embedded in the general protein structure and a special NADPH binding domain is not required to generate the intrinsic oxidoreductase activity. (+info)