(1/8) Expression, candidate gene, and population studies of the melanocortin 5 receptor.
In mouse the melanocortin 5 receptor is known to regulate sebaceous gland function. To clarify its role in man, we have studied melanocortin 5 receptor expression in skin, and allelic variation at the melanocortin 5 receptor locus in diverse human populations and candidate disease groups. Melanocortin 5 receptor protein and mRNA expression were studied by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Melanocortin 5 receptor mRNA was detected in normal skin and cultured keratinocytes but not in cultured fibroblasts or melanocytes. Immunohistochemistry revealed melanocortin 5 receptor immunoreactivity in the epithelium and appendages, including the sebaceous gland, eccrine glands, and apocrine glands, as well as low level expression in the interfollciular epidermis. In order to screen for genetic diversity in the melanocortin 5 receptor that might be useful for allelic association studies we sequenced the entire melanocortin 5 receptor coding region in a range of human populations. One nonsynonymous change (Phe209Leu) and four synonymous changes (Ala81Ala, Asp108Asp, Ser125Ser, and Thr248Thr) were identified. Similar results were found in each of the populations except for the Inuit in which only the Asp108Asp variant was seen. The apparent "global distribution" of melanocortin 5 receptor variants may indicate that they are old in evolutionary terms. Variation of melanocortin 5 receptor was examined in patients with acne (n = 21), hidradenitis supprativa (n = 4), and sebaceous gland lesions comprising sebaceous nevi, adenomas, and hyperplasia (n = 13). No additional mutations were found. In order to determine the functional status of the Phe209Leu change, increase in cAMP in response to stimulation with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was measured in HEK-293 cells transfected with either wild-type or the Phe209Leu variant. The variant melanocortin 5 receptor was shown to act in a concentration-dependent manner, which did not differ from that of wild type. We have therefore found no evidence of a causative role for melanocortin 5 receptor in sebaceous gland dysfunction, and in the absence of any association between variation at the locus and disease group, the pathophysiologic role of the melanocortin 5 receptor in man requires further study. (+info)
(2/8) Sebaceous adenitis in a 7-year-old Arabian gelding.
A 7-year-old Arabian gelding was presented with a 9-month history of progressive patches of nonpruritic scaling, crusting, alopecia, and leukoderma of the periocular areas and muzzle, becoming generalized over time. Sebaceous adenitis was diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Lesions resolved without treatment, coinciding with regression of a sarcoid on the neck. (+info)
(3/8) BRAF mutations in multiple sebaceous hyperplasias of patients belonging to MYH-associated polyposis pedigrees.
The characteristics of sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) consist of yellowish or skin-colored papules and nodules. Chronic sun exposure and immunosuppressed conditions are the main environmental risk factors, whereas chronological aging regulated by hormones and molecular changes are the intrinsic risk factors. We have evaluated the contribution of BRAF, K-Ras, and N-Ras mutations to the pathogenesis of SGHs in four patients belonging to three MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) pedigrees. MAP is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by multiple colorectal adenomas and cancer. Immunohistochemistry of mismatch repair and APC proteins was performed. DNA isolated from blood lymphocytes and formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded SGHs was PCR amplified and sequenced. In the SGH patients, we detected T1796A heterozygous substitution (V600E) in the BRAF gene. Compound biallelic germline MYH mutations (Y165C/G382D, R168H/379delC, and Y90X/delGGA464) were detected in the MAP patients. In contrast to the majority of melanocytic lesions, activating hotspot mutations in BRAF have not been involved so far in the pathogenesis of SGH. BRAF mutation is not a specific marker of melanocytic cancerogenesis, and it can also be involved in SGHs. In both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors, BRAF mutation is linked to early tumorigenesis events. (+info)
(4/8) Sebaceous adenitis in Swedish dogs, a retrospective study of 104 cases.
(5/8) An odd looking lesion.
Mark, 54 years of age, has a nontender lump on his praecordium that has been present 'for a long time'. He vaguely recalls a smaller lump at the same site years ago, which he squeezed, with subsequent resolution. Mark denies any bleeding, however, he has noticed occasional yellowish-brown stains on his shirt. (+info)
(6/8) Sebaceous hyperplasia: a pilot study to correlate this skin disease with circulating androgen levels.
(7/8) Characterization of lipases from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from human facial sebaceous skin.
Two staphylococcal lipases were obtained from Staphylococcus epidermidis S2 and Staphylococcus aureus S11 isolated from sebaceous areas on the skin of the human face. The molecular mass of both enzymes was estimated to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. S2 lipase displayed its highest activity in the hydrolysis of olive oil at 32 degrees C and pH 8, whereas S11 lipase showed optimal activity at 31 degrees C and pH 8.5. The S2 lipase showed the property of cold-adaptation, with activation energy of 6.52 kcal/mol. In contrast, S11 lipase's activation energy, at 21 kcal/mol, was more characteristic of mesophilic lipases. S2 lipase was stable up to 45 degrees C and within the pH range from 5 to 9, whereas S11 lipase was stable up to 50 degrees C and from pH 6 to 10. Both enzymes had high activity against tributyrin, waste soybean oil, and fish oil. Sequence analysis of the S2 lipase gene showed an open reading frame of 2,067 bp encoding a signal peptide (35 aa), a pro-peptide (267 aa), and a mature enzyme (386 aa); the S11 lipase gene, at 2,076 bp, also encoded a signal peptide (37 aa), pro-peptide (255 aa), and mature enzyme (399 aa). The two enzymes maintained amino acid sequence identity of 98-99% with other similar staphylococcal lipases. Their microbial origins and biochemical properties may make these staphylococcal lipases isolated from facial sebaceous skin suitable for use as catalysts in the cosmetic, medicinal, food, or detergent industries. (+info)
(8/8) Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.