(1/2162) Characterization of the interaction between the herpes simplex virus type I Fc receptor and immunoglobulin G.
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) virions and HSV-1-infected cells bind to human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) via its Fc region. A complex of two surface glycoproteins encoded by HSV-1, gE and gI, is responsible for Fc binding. We have co-expressed soluble truncated forms of gE and gI in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Soluble gE-gI complexes can be purified from transfected cell supernatants using a purification scheme that is based upon the Fc receptor function of gE-gI. Using gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that soluble gE-gI is a heterodimer composed of one molecule of gE and one molecule of gI and that gE-gI heterodimers bind hIgG with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Biosensor-based studies of the binding of wild type or mutant IgG proteins to soluble gE-gI indicate that histidine 435 at the CH2-CH3 domain interface of IgG is a critical residue for IgG binding to gE-gI. We observe many similarities between the characteristics of IgG binding by gE-gI and by rheumatoid factors and bacterial Fc receptors such as Staphylococcus aureus protein A. These observations support a model for the origin of some rheumatoid factors, in which they represent anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against antibodies to bacterial and viral Fc receptors. (+info)
(2/2162) Alternative endocytic pathway for immunoglobulin A Fc receptors (CD89) depends on the lack of FcRgamma association and protects against degradation of bound ligand.
IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in mucosal areas but is only the second most common antibody isotype in serum because it is catabolized faster than IgG. IgA exists in monomeric and polymeric forms that function through receptors expressed on effector cells. Here, we show that IgA Fc receptor(s) (FcalphaR) are expressed with or without the gamma chain on monocytes and neutrophils. gamma-less FcalphaR represent a significant fraction of surface FcalphaR molecules even on cells overexpressing the gamma chain. The FcalphaR-gamma2 association is up-regulated by phorbol esters and interferon-gamma. To characterize gamma-less FcalphaR functionally, we generated mast cell transfectants expressing wild-type human FcalphaR or a receptor with a point mutation (Arg --> Leu at position 209) which was unable to associate with the gamma chain. Mutant gamma-less FcalphaR bound monomeric and polymeric human IgA1 or IgA2 but failed to induce exocytosis after receptor clustering. The two types of transfectant showed similar kinetics of FcalphaR-mediated endocytosis; however, the endocytosis pathways of the two types of receptor differed. Whereas mutant FcalphaR were localized mainly in early endosomes, those containing FcalphaR-gamma2 were found in endo-lysosomal compartments. Mutant gamma-less FcalphaR recycled the internalized IgA toward the cell surface and protected against IgA degradation. Cells expressing the two forms of FcalphaR, associated or unassociated with gamma chains, may thus have differential functions either by degrading IgA antibody complexes or by recycling serum IgA. (+info)
(3/2162) Fc receptor beta subunit is required for full activation of mast cells through Fc receptor engagement.
The high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilonRI) and the low-affinity IgG receptor (Fc gammaRIII) on mast cells are the key molecules involved in triggering the allergic reaction. These receptors share the common beta subunit (FcRbeta) which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif and transduces the signals of these receptors' aggregation. In rodents, FcRbeta is essential for the cell surface expression of the Fc epsilonRI. In humans, the FcRbeta gene was reported to be one of the candidate genes causing atopic diseases. However, the role of FcRbeta in vivo still remains ambiguous. To elucidate the functions of FcRbeta, we developed the mice lacking FcRbeta [FcRbeta(-/-)]. The FcRbeta(-/-) mice lacked the expression of the Fc epsilonRI on mast cells and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was not induced in FcRbeta(-/-) mice as was expected. In these mice, the expression of IgG receptors on mast cells was augmented but the IgG-mediated PCA reaction was attenuated. Although with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells from FcRbeta(-/-), adhesion to fibronectin and Ca2+ flux upon aggregation of IgG receptors were enhanced, mast cells co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts exhibited impaired degranulation on receptor aggregation. These observations indicate that FcRbeta accelerates the degranulation of mature mast cells via the IgG receptor in connective tissues. (+info)
(4/2162) Nonvectorial surface transport, endocytosis via a Di-leucine-based motif, and bidirectional transcytosis of chimera encoding the cytosolic tail of rat FcRn expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
Transfer of passive immunity from the mother to the fetus or newborn involves the transport of IgG across several epithelia. Depending on the species, IgG is transported prenatally across the placenta and yolk sac or is absorbed from colostrum and milk by the small intestine of the suckling newborn. In both cases apical to basolateral transepithelial transport of IgG is thought to be mediated by FcRn, an IgG Fc receptor with homology to major histocompatibility class I antigens. Here, we analyzed the intracellular routing of chimera encoding the rat FcRn tail fused to the ecto- and transmembrane domain of the macrophage FcgammaRIIb. Newly synthesized chimera were delivered in a nonvectorial manner to the apical and basolateral cell surface, from where the chimera were able to internalize and transcytose. Apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical transcytosis were differently regulated. This intracellular routing of the chimera is similar to that of the native FcRn, indicating that the cytosolic tail of the receptor is necessary and sufficient to endow an unrelated FcR with the intracellular transport behavior of FcRn. Furthermore, the di-leucine motif in the cytosolic domain of FcRn was required for rapid and efficient endocytosis but not for basolateral sorting of the chimera. (+info)
(5/2162) Modulation of the humoral immune response by antibody-mediated antigen targeting to complement receptors and Fc receptors.
During an ongoing immune response, immune complexes, composed of Ag, complement factors, and Igs, are formed that can interact with complement receptors (CRs) and IgG Fc receptors (Fc gamma R). The role of CR1/2 and Fc gamma R in the regulation of the immune response was investigated using OVA that was chemically conjugated to whole IgG of the rat anti-mouse CR1/2 mAb 7G6. FACS analysis using the murine B cell lymphoma IIA1.6 confirmed that the 7G6-OVA conjugate recognized CR1/2. Incubating IIA1.6 cells with 7G6-OVA triggered tyrosine phosphorylation and Ag presentation to OVA-specific T cells in vitro. Immunizing mice with 7G6-OVA at a minimal dose of 1 microgram i.p. per mouse markedly enhanced the anti-OVA Ig response, which was primarily of the IgG1 isotype subclass. The 7G6-OVA did not enhance the anti-OVA response in CR1/2-deficient mice. OVA coupled to an isotype control Ab induced a considerably lower anti-OVA response compared with that induced by OVA alone, suggesting inhibition by interaction between the Fc part of the Ab and the inhibitory Fc gamma RIIb on B cells. This findings was supported by the observation that IIA1.6 cells which were incubated with 7G6-OVA lost the ability to present Ag upon transfection with Fc gamma RIIb. In sum, 7G6-conjugated OVA, resembling a natural immune complex, induces an enhanced anti-OVA immune response that involves at least CR1/2-mediated stimulation and that may be partially suppressed by Fc gamma RIIb. (+info)
(6/2162) Human mesangial cells in culture and in kidney sections fail to express Fc alpha receptor (CD89).
The mechanism of deposition of IgA in the renal mesangium in primary IgA-nephropathy is poorly understood. It has been suggested that membrane receptors for IgA on mesangial cells (MC) of the kidney may be involved. To obtain more insight in the occurrence of the myeloid receptor for IgA (CD89) on MC, both in situ and in culture, rabbit and goat polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibody against recombinant CD89 were raised. Kidney sections from five control subjects and five patients with primary IgA-nephropathy failed to be positive for CD89 in the mesangium, using our polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Also, five primary human MC cultures assessed for CD89 expression showed no protein expression of CD89. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR failed to detect mRNA expression of CD89 in the cultured MC. It was demonstrated that all five human primary MC bound human IgA in a dose-dependent manner, which was not inhibitable by blocking monoclonal anti-CD89 antibody (My43). In contrast, binding of IgA to U937 cells was blocked efficiently by My43. Finally, incubation of human MC with either human or rat IgA led to increased interleukin-6 production, whereas only human IgA, but not rat IgA, was able to bind to human CD89. Therefore, it is concluded that human MC do not express CD89 (to a significant extent). These results strongly suggest that binding of IgA to human MC occurs via an IgA receptor distinct from CD89. (+info)
(7/2162) B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo.
The contribution of B lymphocytes as APCs for CD4+ T cell priming remains controversial, based on findings that B cells cannot provide the requisite ligating and costimulatory signals for naive T cells to be activated. In the current study, we have examined Ag-specific T:B cell collaboration under circumstances in which B cells take up Ag through Ig receptors in vivo. This results in their activation and an ability to effectively stimulate naive CD4+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was to establish some of the key molecular interactions, as well as kinetics, between Ag-specific T and B cells that enable this priming to take place. Our approach was to amplify the starting pools of both Ag-specific T and B cell populations in vivo to track directly the events during initial T:B cell collaborations. We show that the induction of optimal levels of T cell priming to a protein Ag requires the involvement of Ag-specific B cells. The interaction that results between Ag-specific T and B cells prevents the down-modulation of B7 costimulatory molecules usually observed in the absence of appropriate T cells. Moreover, this prevention in down-modulation is independent of CD40:CD40 ligand contact. Finally, we present data suggesting that once Ag-specific T and B cells interact, there is a rapid (1-2-h) down-regulation of antigenic complexes on the surface of the B lymphocytes, possibly to prevent them from engaging other T cells in the vicinity and therefore focus the initial interaction. (+info)
(8/2162) Improving the efficacy of antibody-interleukin 2 fusion proteins by reducing their interaction with Fc receptors.
Fusion proteins between whole antibodies (Abs) and cytokines (immunocytokines) such as interleukin 2 have shown efficacy in several mouse tumor models despite a circulating half-life that is significantly shorter than that of the original Ab. We have examined the potential mechanisms responsible for clearance and shown that an important factor is enhanced binding to Fc receptor (FcR). Improvements in the half-lives of two different immunocytokines were made by changing the isotype of the human heavy chain C region from IgG1 or IgG3 to those with reduced binding to FcR, e.g., IgG4. The same effect could also be achieved through site-directed mutagenesis of the FcR binding site in the IgG1 H chain. In vitro studies using mouse J774 FcR-expressing cells showed increased binding of interleukin 2-based immunocytokines, relative to their corresponding Abs, and that this was reversed in those fusion proteins made with IgG4 or mutated IgG1 H chains. All of the fusion proteins showing reduced FcR binding also had reduced Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, as measured in 4-h chromium release assays. A complete loss of complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity was seen with an IgG4-based immunocytokine derived from an IgG1 Ab with potent activity. Despite these reduced effector functions, the IgG4-based immunocytokines with extended circulating half-lives showed equivalent (in the case of severe combined immunodeficiency mouse xenograft models) or better (in the case of syngeneic models) efficacy in mouse tumor models than the original IgG1-based molecules. These novel immunocytokines may show improved efficacy in therapeutic situations where T cell- rather than natural killer- or complement-mediated antitumor mechanisms are involved. (+info)