(1/1376) RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach.

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

(2/1376) Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations.

Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences.  (+info)

(3/1376) An Escherichia coli strain with all chromosomal rRNA operons inactivated: complete exchange of rRNA genes between bacteria.

Current global phylogenies are built predominantly on rRNA sequences. However, an experimental system for studying the evolution of rRNA is not readily available, mainly because the rRNA genes are highly repeated in most experimental organisms. We have constructed an Escherichia coli strain in which all seven chromosomal rRNA operons are inactivated by deletions spanning the 16S and 23S coding regions. A single E. coli rRNA operon carried by a multicopy plasmid supplies 16S and 23S rRNA to the cell. By using this strain we have succeeded in creating microorganisms that contain only a foreign rRNA operon derived from either Salmonella typhimurium or Proteus vulgaris, microorganisms that have diverged from E. coli about 120-350 million years ago. We also were able to replace the E. coli rRNA operon with an E. coli/yeast hybrid one in which the GTPase center of E. coli 23S rRNA had been substituted by the corresponding domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest that, contrary to common belief, coevolution of rRNA with many other components in the translational machinery may not completely preclude the horizontal transfer of rRNA genes.  (+info)

(4/1376) Identification of Mycobacterium kansasii by using a DNA probe (AccuProbe) and molecular techniques.

The newly formulated Mycobacterium kansasii AccuProbe was evaluated, and the results obtained with the new version were compared to the results obtained with the old version of this test by using 116 M. kansasii strains, 1 Mycobacterium gastri strain, and 19 strains of several mycobacterial species. The sensitivity of this new formulation was 97.4% and the specificity was 100%. Still, three M. kansasii strains were missed by this probe. To evaluate the variability within the species, genetic analyses of the hsp65 gene, the spacer sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, and the 16S rRNA gene of several M. kansasii AccuProbe-positive strains as well as all AccuProbe-negative strains were performed. Genetic analyses of the one M. gastri strain from the comparative assay and of two further M. gastri strains were included because of the identity of the 16S rRNA gene in M. gastri to that in M. kansasii. The data confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of M. kansasii. Furthermore, a subspecies with an unpublished hsp65 restriction pattern and spacer sequence was described. The genetic data indicate that all M. kansasii strains missed by the AccuProbe test belong to one subspecies, the newly described subspecies VI, as determined by the hsp65 restriction pattern and the spacer sequence. Since the M. kansasii strains that are missed are rare and all M. gastri strains are correctly negative, the new formulated AccuProbe provides a useful tool for the identification of M. kansasii.  (+info)

(5/1376) The three-dimensional structure of the RNA-binding domain of ribosomal protein L2; a protein at the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.

Ribosomal protein L2 is the largest protein component in the ribosome. It is located at or near the peptidyl transferase center and has been a prime candidate for the peptidyl transferase activity. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and plays a crucial role in its assembly. The three-dimensional structure of the RNA-binding domain of L2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined at 2.3 A resolution by X-ray crystallography using the selenomethionyl MAD method. The RNA-binding domain of L2 consists of two recurring motifs of approximately 70 residues each. The N-terminal domain (positions 60-130) is homologous to the OB-fold, and the C-terminal domain (positions 131-201) is homologous to the SH3-like barrel. Residues Arg86 and Arg155, which have been identified by mutation experiments to be involved in the 23S rRNA binding, are located at the gate of the interface region between the two domains. The molecular architecture suggests how this important protein has evolved from the ancient nucleic acid-binding proteins to create a 23S rRNA-binding domain in the very remote past.  (+info)

(6/1376) Phylogenetic analysis of Piscirickettsia salmonis by 16S, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 23S ribosomal DNA sequencing.

Piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, is a systemic disease of salmonid fish. Variations in virulence and mortality have been observed during epizootics at different geographical regions and in laboratory experiments with isolates from these different locations. This raises the possibility that biogeographical patterns of genetic variation might be a significant factor with this disease. To assess the genetic variability the 16S ribosomal DNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the 23S ribosomal DNA of isolates from 3 different hosts and 3 geographic origins were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of this analysis confirm that P. salmonis is a member of the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and show that the isolates form a tight monophyletic cluster with 16S rDNA similarities ranging from 99.7 to 98.5%. The ITS regions were 309 base pairs (bp), did not contain tRNA genes, and varied between isolates (95.2 to 99.7% similarity). Two-thirds of the 23S rRNA gene was sequenced from 5 of the isolates, yielding similarities ranging from 97.9 to 99.8%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the 16S rDNA, ITS and 23S rDNA sequence data and compared. The trees were topologically similar, suggesting that the 3 types of molecules provided similar phylogenetic information. Five of the isolates are closely related (> 99.4% 16S rDNA similarity, 99.1% to 99.7% ITS and 99.3 to 99.8% 23S rDNA similarities). The sequence of one Chilean isolate, EM-90, was unique, with 16S rDNA similarities to the other isolates ranging from 98.5 to 98.9%, the ITS from 95.2 to 96.9% and the 23S rDNA from 97.6 to 98.5%.  (+info)

(7/1376) Cleavage of a 23S rRNA pseudoknot by phenanthroline-Cu(II).

Studying the intricate folding of rRNA within the ribosome remains a complex problem. Phenanthroline-Cu(II) complexes cleave phosphodiester bonds in rRNA in specific regions, apparently especially where the rRNA structure is constrained in some fashion. We have introduced phenanthroline-copper complexes into 50S Escherichia coli ribosomal subunits and shown specific cleavages in the regions containing nucleotides 60-66 and 87-100. This specificity of cleavage is reduced when the ribosome is heated to 80 degrees C and reduced to background when the ribosomal proteins are extracted and the cleavage repeated on protein-free 23S rRNA. It has been suggested that nucleotides 60-66 and 87-95 in E.coli 23S rRNA are involved in a putative pseudoknot structure, which is supported by covariance data. The paired cleavages of nearly equal intensity of these two regions, when in the ribosome, may further support the existence of a pseudoknot structure in the 100 region of 23S rRNA.  (+info)

(8/1376) Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains.

Little is known about Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains because no Frankia strains that can reinfect the host plants have been isolated from Ceonothus spp. Therefore, we studied the diversity of the Ceonothus-infective Frankia strains by using molecular techniques. Frankia strains inhabiting root nodules of nine Ceanothus species were characterized. The Ceanothus species used represent the taxonomic diversity and geographic range of the genus; therefore, the breadth of the diversity of Frankia strains that infect Ceanothus spp. was studied. DNA was amplified directly from nodular material by using the PCR. The amplified region included the 3' end of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer, and a large portion of the 23S rRNA gene. A series of restriction enzyme digestions of the PCR product allowed us to identify PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) groups among the Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains tested. Twelve different enzymes were used, which resulted in four different PCR-RFLP groups. The groups did not follow the taxonomic lines of the Ceanothus host species. Instead, the Frankia strains present were related to the sample collection locales.  (+info)