(1/84) Purification and properties of an alginate lyase from a marine bacterium.
An unidentified pseudomonad isolated by enrichment procedures from decomposing seaweed was grown in defined medium containing sodium alginate as the sole carbon source. The alginate lyase recovered from disrupted bacterial cells was purified by a procedure of (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. From sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis experiments a mol.wt. of about 50 000 was determined. The enzyme was active against both algal and bacterial alginate preparations. Kinetic studies together with analysis of the unsaturated oligouronide products of alginate lyase action indicated the enzyme was specific for guluronic acid-containing regions of the macromolecular substrate. The specificity of the enzyme can be used to give information about the primary composition of alginate samples. (+info)
(2/84) Kinetics of Na+-dependent K+ ion transport in a marine pseudomonad.
The effect of external Na plus concentration on the transport of K plus was studied using K plus-depleted cells of a marine pseudomonad. K plus transport was found to be a saturable process and requires Na plus. The initial rates for K plus transport over a range of external K plus concentrations were measured in suspensions containing various fixed concentrations of Na plus. Reciprocals of the initial rates for K plus transport were plotted against reciprocals of the external concentration of K plus or Na plus to yield two primary Lineweaver-Burk plots. The experimental data were found to fit bisubstrate enzyme kinetics, with a sequential type mechanism. However, the initial rate data did not allow distinction between ordered or random mechanisms. The results suggest that Na plus and K plus form a ternary complex with a specific K plus carrier molecule on the outer surface of the membrane prior to translocation and the release of K plus inside the cell. (+info)
(3/84) Antifungal activity of chitinases produced by some fluorescent pseudomonads against Colletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in sugarcane.
Chitinase production and growth of certain fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere on different subtrates were studied. When chitin was substituted for glycerol in King's B medium, 3 of the 4 strains showed enhanced bacterial multiplication. Bacterial cells grown on chitin-containing medium showed enhanced antifungal activity against Colletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in sugarcane. Chitinase production was significantly higher when chitin was amended to King's B medium. Higher chitinase production was also recorded when fluorescent pseudomonad strains were grown in the medium containing crab-shell chitin. Cell-free bacterial culture filtrate from chitin-containing medium significantly inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. These cell-free conditioned media contained 3 to 7 polypeptides. Western blot analysis revealed five isoforms of chitinase with molecular masses of 47, 36, 32, 20 and 18.5 kDa. A possible role of chitinases in red rot disease management is discussed. (+info)
(4/84) Phylogenetic relationships of Xylella fastidiosa strains from different hosts, based on 16S rDNA and 16S-23S intergenic spacer sequences.
The phylogenetic relationships of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from different hosts, including citrus trees, coffee, grapevine, plum and pear, were inferred by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A high level of similarity (97.1-100%) was found in the 16S rDNA of the Xylella fastidiosa strains. The 16S-23S region showed a higher level of variation, with similarity values ranging from 79.8 to 100%. Two tRNAs (tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Ile)) were encountered within the spacer sequence. The phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbour-joining method, showed that the citrus, coffee, peach and plum strains were closely related and separate from grapevine strains. The pear strain remained isolated from all the other Xylella strains in both analyses and produced values of less than 20% in DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with a citrus strain. These results show that this strain does not belong to the Xylella fastidiosa genomic species. (+info)
(5/84) Gene transfer in Caulobacter crescentus: polarized inheritance of genetic markers.
Recombination frequencies were determined for 15 independently isolated auxotrophs of C. crescentus crossed pairwise in all possible combinations. The results indicate that the mutants may be grouped into at least two types: "fertile" strains, which recombine with all other mutants at frequencies ranging from less than 10-6 to 3 times 10-2, and "nonfertile" strains which recombine with fertile strains at high frequencies and with other nonfertile strains at low or negligible frequencies. Several lines of evidence indicate a polarized inheritance of markers. Two of these are (1) the preferential inheritance of unselected markers from the nonfertile parent in fertile times nonfertile crosses, and (2) the consistent ordering of markers based on the frequency at which the mutants recombine with each of the three fertile strains. Although the evidence is not conclusive at this point, the results are most consistent with conjugation at the mechanism of gene transfer in these bacteria. (+info)
(6/84) Identification and grouping of bacteria by numerical analysis of their electrophoretic protein patterns.
Improved methods for the identification and grouping of bacteria by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins are described. Electrophoretic protein patterns were obtained in rigorously standardized comditions. The results were much more reproducible than any described previously. Some of the factors affecting reproducibility were; growth conditions, time and speed of centrifugation of extracts, and conditions of gel electrophoresis. Protein patterns were compared by computing correlation coefficients from normalized densitometric tracings and clustering the strains by the unweighted average pair group method. As model systems, both Agrobacterium and Zymomonas were used because of differences in the sharpness of the peaks. The methodwas applied to 42 Agrobacterium strains. The agreement with the results of clustering by either phenotypic tests or DNA:DNA hybridization was excellent. Computerized comparisons of electrophoretic protein patterns can be a fast, easy and powerful tool for classification and identification of bacteria. (+info)
(7/84) Intracytoplasmic membrane formation and increased oxidation of glycerol growth of Gluconobacter oxydans.
Gluconobacter oxydans is well known for the limited oxidation of compounds and rapid excretion of industrially important oxidation products. The dehydrogenases responsible for these oxidations are reportedly bound to the cell's plasma membrane. This report demonstrates that fully viable G. oxydans differentiates at the end of exponential growth by forming dense regions at the end of each cell observed with the light microscope. When these cells were thin sectioned, their polar regions contained accumulations of intracytoplasmic membranes and ribosomes not found in undifferentiated exponentially growing cells. Both freeze-fracture-etched whole cells and thin sections through broken-cell envelopes of differentiated cells demonstrate that intracytoplasmic membranes occur as a polar accumulation of vesicles that are attached to the plasma membrane. When cells were tested for the activity of the plasma membrane-associated glycerol dehydrogenase, those containing intracytoplasmic membranes were 100% more active than cells lacking these membranes. These results suggest that intracytoplasmic membranes are formed by continued plasma membrane synthesis at the end of active cell division. (+info)
(8/84) Teredinibacter turnerae gen. nov., sp. nov., a dinitrogen-fixing, cellulolytic, endosymbiotic gamma-proteobacterium isolated from the gills of wood-boring molluscs (Bivalvia: Teredinidae).
A cellulolytic, dinitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the gill tissue of a wood-boring mollusc (shipworm) Lyrodus pedicellatus of the bivalve family Teredinidae and 58 additional strains with similar properties, isolated from gills of 24 bivalve species representing 9 of 14 genera of Teredinidae, are described. The cells are Gram-negative, rigid, rods (0.4-0.6 x 3-6 microm) that bear a single polar flagellum. All isolates are capable of chemoheterotrophic growth in a simple mineral medium supplemented with cellulose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Xylan, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose and a variety of sugars and organic acids also support growth. Growth requires addition of combined nitrogen when cultures are vigorously aerated, but all isolates fix dinitrogen under microaerobic conditions. The pH, temperature and salinity optima for growth were determined for six isolates and are approximately 8.5, 30-35 degrees C and 0.3 M NaCl respectively. The isolates are marine. In addition to NaCl, growth requires elevated concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ that reflect the chemistry of seawater. The DNA G+C content ranged from 49 to 51 mol%. Four isolates were identical with respect to small-subunit rRNA sequence over 891 positions compared and fall within a unique clade in the gamma-subclass of the Proteobacteria. Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characteristics and specific symbiotic association with teredinid bivalves, a new genus and species, Teredinibacter turnerae gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is T7902(T) (= ATCC 39867(T) = DSM 15152(T)). (+info)